The disorder affects less than 10% of men and less than 1% of women.
Over the 20th century, the number of cases of the eating disorder increased.
It was thought to only occur in Western cultures, but recent research shows that it is also found in non-Western countries.
Normal eating and weight gain are the first treatment objectives.
Approximately 50% of patients with an eating disorder can be treated as outpatients.
Individuals who suffer from an eating disorder need to develop insight into their negative feelings about their bodies and their behaviors.
Without this insight, a weight gain will most likely be a symptom of anorectic habits.
Young women with atypical age of onset is 15 to 18 are more likely to have bulimia.
She died of acute respiratory disease in November of 2010 due to her eating disorder.
During an episode, a feeling of lack of control is common.
Depression and guilt can set in and lead to self-destructive behaviors such as vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, or extreme exercise.
Vomiting can cause tooth decay by bringing stomach acid into contact with the teeth.
Alteration of the gag reflex so that it is triggered too easily or unintentionally is one of the medical problems.
There are scars and abrasions on the hands of bulimia sufferers.
In addition to a range of physical health problems, bulimia nervosa is also associated with an increased risk of anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and diabetes.
bulimic women are less likely to need hospitalization than anorectic women.
Their weight is usually within the normal range.
Sex is a powerful motive that can be seen in television, magazine, and newspaper advertising.
Sex is different from other biological motives such as hunger and thirst.
Food and water deprivation do not lead to a person's death, but sexual deprivation does.
Hunger and thirst areversive states that we want to reduce, while sexual arousal is a pleasurable state.
Sexual behavior in animals is controlled by pro grammed factors.
Write down your answers before you read further.
Human sexual behavior is different from that of many other organisms because of a complex interplay of genetic, prenatal, and environmental factors.
We can become aroused by a wide range of stimuli.
Some of the unusual sexual behav iors and arousal patterns that occur in humans but not in lower animals are described in this observation.
Male sexual responsiveness is linked to external stimuli.
The smell of a female dog when she ovulates is an external cue for sexual advances by male dogs.
There is a lot of speculation on the subject of human phero mones.
In the 70s, some researchers suggested that women living in close proximity were more likely to have their menstrual cycles synchronized.
There is no evidence to suggest that women actually do their men's strual cycles.
There has been no success in developing substances that produce a similar effect on humans.
There is a claim that the products act as pheromones.
"Buyer beware" is the best advice because there is no evidence that they work as advertised.
Internal factors such as hormones and brain mechanisms are important in determining sexual behavior.
There are two major sex hormones, testosterone and estrogen.
Many people think that men and women have different sex hormones, but both genders have measurable quantities.
Estradiol dominates in women while testoster dominates in men.
Sex hormones are important in directing sexual behavior in lower animals, but their role in directing human sexual behavior is less clear.
Although testos terone levels are related to sexual activity, castration may result in a decline in sexual desire in men.
Studies relating estrogen level and sexual interest have failed to detect a strong relationship between hormone level and activity.
The hypothalamus regulates sexual behavior as well as determining hunger and thirst.
In turn, these releasing factors increase the production of hormones in the body.
The male and female reproductive systems are stimulated by FSH and LH, respectively.
As the female's hormones decline, the stimulation of the hypothalamus is reduced.
A decrease in the production of hypothalamic releasing factors in men and women is caused by a reduction in sexually arousing external stimuli.
Sex drive is related to testosterone levels and is one of the factors controlling sexual behavior.
Kinsey, Pomeroy, and Martin conducted research on sexual behavior.
They found that the incidence of premarital intercourse, masturbation, and homosexuality was higher than had been thought.
The Kinsey surveys were criticized for not randomly selecting participants.
The Kinsey surveys were expanded and updated several decades ago.
More than 3000 randomly selected American men and women between the ages of 18 and 59 were surveyed by the University of Chicago's National Opinion Research Center.
80% of people contacted agreed to answer questions about their sexual behavior.
High levels of alcohol, fatigue, and illness can cause sluggish responses to the body.
Many body systems are involved in the sexual response.
Sexual involvement heightens our sense of touch.
Sexual arousal can affect the senses of vision and hearing.
During the plateau phase, arousal builds at a slower rate.
Before entering resolution, time orgasms.
Low Time respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure are all increasing.
Men rarely experience more than one orgasm during sexual intercourse, but women are capable of multiple orgasms.
Sexual arousal gradually decline during the resolution phase.
The resolution phase is extended if orgasm has not been experienced.
Most people experience a lack of interest in sexual activity, difficulty getting aroused, or problems getting to orgasm.
There are cases in which the difficulties in sexual functioning occur persistently, causing significant distress or problems for the individual or couple.
Sex drive is more common in women than in men, and is more likely among those with poor physical and emotional health.
The man's tendency to reach orgasm and ejaculate with minimal sexual stimulation before the man wants it to occur.
Masters and Johnson found that many sexual problems respond to psychological treatment.
Current treatments emphasize a cognitive-behavioral approach, which may serve as the sole treatment or as an alternative to medical or surgical intervention.
Therapists emphasize treating both partners in cases of sexual problems because they believe that couples, not individuals, have sexual problems.
The pleasures of touch may need to be reintroduced to the couple.
It is difficult to define achievement precisely, but most people know what it is and can give an exam to find two examples.
An example of achievement behavior is studying hard to get good grades.
The existence of an achievement motive has been proposed due to the prevalence of achievement oriented behaviors.
Incentives are used to explain achievement behaviors because they are directed toward attaining a pleasurable award or goal.
Academic achievement is one area of interest.
Maybe you are studying to become a psychologist because you want to one day.
The achievement goal orientation theory is one explanation for the different reasons for studying.
For many forms of achievement, personal satisfaction is important to the participants, and some achievements result in recognition in the form of praise, plaques, or ribbons.
Some theorists want to succeed while others want to avoid failure.
The difference between the two needs can be seen in the example of two students who both earn As in the same course.
The student is motivated to earn the A because of their pride in mastering the material.
The student who earns the A avoids the shame of failing or making a lower grade.
There is a correlation between achievement goal orientation and study strategy.
Students who are more mastery-motivated tend to use more effective study techniques.
Students who are more performance goal oriented tend to use less effective study techniques.
Students have a blend of achievement goal orientations.
It is rare for a student to be completely mastery-oriented; most will have some concern for their final grade in a course and hold some performance goals.
Students have different goals for different courses.
There are more performance goals in your general education requirements than there are in your major courses.
Student behaviors are both useful and destructive due to the topic of achievement motivation.
A person's levels are determined by their genetic factors.
Human mastery and performance goals can influence academic sexual behavior.
As we age, the rate of metabolism slows.
Maria is about to sing the aria for her recital.
Maria doesn't want anyone to see the ocean of perspiration that is soaking through her dress.
There is no joy associated with great art.
A vicious crime does not cause anger or disgust.
We don't experience love after the death of a loved one.
Without emotion, life would be like a meal in need of seasoning.
Emotions can help us survive.
Scientists used to consider emotion trivial and not worthy of study.
They argued that poets and philosophers should analyze emotions.
The rational part of human nature should be the focus of scientists.
They argued that emotions are the side of human nature that can disrupt rational thought.
An expanding body of research has focused on the what, why, and how of emotions, and this disregard of the emotional part of human nature has changed.
Stage fright can cause significant increases in heart rate, feelings of distress, and levels of hormones related to stress.
Maria's experience is similar to what happens when we face real threats such as losing a car on an ice-covered road or being mugged.
The study of emotions connects our present with the past.
The pupils of your eyes are dilated, your mouth is dry, and your heart is pounding.
The activity of the sympathetic branch of the nervous system prepares us for fight or flight.
In this state of heightened arousal, we perspire to cool down because we burn more energy than normal.
The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system takes control of the body after this call to arms.
Spending extended periods of time in the aroused state that accompanies some emotions can have devastating effects on the body and health.
Tell us what you know about the term.
You decide that emotion is different from rational thought in that it is not the same as information we get through our senses or in our memory.
Emotions don't last long.
Humans and higher primate seem to frown; most animals bare their teeth during anger or rage.
Humans display similar facial expressions across cultures.
Darwin suggested that the expressions communicate information about events that help organisms adapt.
The ability to communicate fear of a predator is important to prey animals; emotions can also communicate a willingness to fight an enemy.
It is possible to increase the chances of survival by providing a readiness for actions that have helped us survive throughout our history.
Take anger as an example, it "intimidates, influences others to do something you wish them to do, makes an individual more aggressive, and places the participants in a conflict" (Plutchik, 2001, p. 348).
Fear drives blood to the large muscles, making it easier to run, and surprise raises eyebrows to collect more information.
Some gestures associated with emotional reactions may have descended from our human ancestors who did not have a well-developed spoken language.
Emotions warn us of danger, guide us to what is satisfying, and convey our intentions to others.
When her parents returned at about 1 a.m., they heard noises and thought they had caught a criminal.
Bobby Crabtree cautiously walked toward the bedroom.
Many people offer examples of cal activity if asked to provide a definition of emotion.
Our body's generalized arousal is the most visible sign of emotion to the person as well as to observers.
You can imagine what Bobby's body was going through as he made his way to confront the suspect.
It is not surprising that the first theoretical explanations of emotion focused on this component.
Next, we will look at these explanations.
The feelings you experience while listening to "The Star-Spangled feelings and Banner" are a result of the changes in your body.
The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is activated by the sounds of the music.
The sympathetic division sends impulses to the cortex to create an emotional feeling.
The changes in the body precede and produce the emotion.
Scientists know more about the cal changes associated with emotion than James and Lange did.
The James-Lange theory has several criticisms.
The case of Bobby Crabtree shows that sometimes we experience emotion before the body has time to react.
There is no doubt that arousal plays a part in emotion, but it doesn't always cause it.
Cannon believed that hormones were too slow to serve as the theory of the Cannon-Bard changes.
How are they the same?
The James-Lange theory is not supported by this sequence of reactions.
Our emotional feelings are not dependent on bodily changes or a prior emotional feeling.
The Cannon-Bard theory can reconcile differences between the commonsense view and the James-Lange theory.
The Cannon-Bard theory places a lot of responsibility on the thalamus.
The thalamus must be able to interpret and relay the full range of both physical and emotional reactions.
The thalamus is not likely to be versatile.
The thalamus relays information, but other parts of the brain are required to fully comprehend it.
It may be difficult to distinguish one emotion from another, but some differences offer important clues.
People cry when they are sad, sometimes when they are happy, but almost never when they are angry or disgusted.
It has been difficult to find such evidence because emo tions last for a few seconds.
Researchers have to find a way to elicit an emotion before they can study it.
Students and actors followed instructions to create facial expressions in one method.
Pull your eyebrows down and look in the mirror.
Your upper eyelid should be raised.
Push your lower lip up and press your lips together.
You have shown anger.
The researchers recorded the autonomic nervous system index while the participants held their expressions.
This type of research shows that there are different emotions.
Anger tends to be associated with car diovascular changes.
The heart rate decreases with disgust.
Fear is associated with lower blood pressure, cooler surface temperature, and less blood flow to the body's peripheral areas.
When we talk about anger, we use phrases such as "blood boiling" and "hot under the col lar", but not when we talk about disgust or happiness.
The cooler skin temperature associated with white with fear is reflected in the description.
Robert and his colleagues traveled to western Sumatra in Indonesia in 1992 to study a society with a female-oriented organization.
The society emphasizes external aspects of emotion and forbids public displays of anger.
There were similarities and differences between the Minangkabau and Americans.
Young male participants who posed the facial expressions of emotions had the same differences found in Americans.
The posed faces cause changes in the body that are prewired and culture-free.
The sensory signals from facial muscles did not produce the same feelings in Americans.
It is possible to observe patterns in certain emotions which can lead to blushing.
Everyone will give you feedback after watching your speech.
When you see your image on the screen, your cheeks, ears, neck, and upper chest fill with blood, making your skin hot.
It is possible that blushing in darker-skinned people will not be seen by others.
Darwin thought blushing served no purpose, but it may communicate the message that the person values the positive regard of others.
Most people blush, but those who are especially concerned with how others view them are more prone to blush.
Threats to one's public image, such as being made to look incompetent, are strong elicitors of blushing; simply being the center of attention, however, may be sufficient to cause some people to blush.
We know that certain emotions occur in people all over the world, but some differences in their reactions may be due to cultural influences.
In the United States and other countries that encourage age individuality, emotional expressions tend to last longer and are more intense.
Researchers failed to find differences between Chinese Americans and Mexican Ameri cans in their emotional responses to an acoustic startle to produce a strong defensive response.
The Mexican culture has been portrayed as valuing free and open expression of emotion, whereas the Chinese culture has been portrayed as being moderate.
Whether the noise presented was anticipated, unexpected, or anticipated with instructions to modify one's emotional response made no difference.
There are questions about which parts of the nervous system are important.
The brain plays a key role in most of our behaviors.
The cortex of primate is larger than that of lower animals.
There are more options following emotional arousal.
A rabbit that is being chased by a predator has few responses to its deathly fear, either it runs faster than ever, or it loses the race and its life.
The human cortex has many options: run, fight, dial, and so on.
The limbic system is the most important part of the brain.
The main function of the campus is in processing memories.
The fight-or-flight response can be triggered by the amygdala, according to Joseph LeDoux.
Bobby Crab tree's rapid response in firing his gun helps us understand this sequence of brain activity.
LeDoux focused on fear because it occurs across cultures and in many species and plays a key role in some psychological disorders.
LeDoux applied an electric shock to the rats' feet while playing a tone.
You receive a mild electric shock when you hear a tone.
Before reading further, write down your answer.
When the tone was sounded again, the ani mals froze and their blood pressure and heart rates went up.
The rats were afraid of the tone.
LeDoux traced the nerve impulses that carried sound from the ear to the thalamus.
The information went from the thalamus to the cortex and then to the amygdala.
There are different paths of information related to fearinducing stimuli.
Relaying this determination to the amygdala causes an increase in heart rate and blood pressure.
Failing to respond to danger is more costly than responding to a benign stimulation.
There is more information about the amygdala's role in emotions.
When human participants were taught to associate a visual cue with shock, they showed increased blood flow to the amygdala.
Patients with damaged amygdala rated faces with negative expressions as more trustworthy than faces with positive expressions.
There is no doubt that the amygdala plays an important role in emotions.
The range of emotions for which the amygdala plays a role seems to expand at a rapid rate; recent research indicates that the amygdala is activated while viewing pictures depicting sadness.
The entire brain plays a role in emotion, but subcortical areas are involved in fear.
Right-hemisphere damage can leave victims emotionally indifferent, which has been noted by physicians, clinical neu ropsychologists, and relatives of people who have suffered brain damage.
There is research on brain activity during emotional expressions.
Patients with right-hemisphere damage can't see emotional signals from others.
The speaker's tone of voice or angry facial expression are not detected by these people.
Patients with right-hemisphere disease have a harder time processing facial expressions than patients with left-hemisphere damage.
The right hemisphere is used to seeing emotion from facial expressions.
There is increased activity in the right hemisphere of the person when they report a negative emotion such as fear or disgust.
The left and right hemispheres can be used for approach and withdrawal processes.
Some people have difficulty expressing their emotions and understanding the feelings of others.
These people find it difficult to maintain relationships because of their lack of emotional responsiveness.
The word refers to a lack of words to describe feelings.
People with this condition may be smart and successful.
They are comfortable talking about non-emotional issues.
Individuals with alexithymia have a hard time talking about their emotions and can have a negative impact on their social interactions.
People with alexithymia lack self-awareness, are described as color less and bland, and are not able to discriminate between different emotions.
They don't know what other people feel.
They don't differ from others in the number of words used to describe their dreams, but their dreams are rated less fantastic.
Men who come from families with little positive communication and few models for expressing emotions are more likely to have alexithymia.
Their character istics are stable over time.
A clear case has not been made for either environmental or genetic factors, according to two studies.
It would be a huge boost to the police if they could attach electrodes to a suspect, ask questions, and determine if the person was deceptive.
Lie detection is based on the idea that a specific change in the body's chemistry tells us that a person is not telling the truth.
The electronic device was conceived in 1915 by William Marston, who wanted to create an electronic device that could sense and record several parameters, including blood pressure, heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response.
There are computerized scoring systems that interpret results.
Police often use lie detectors to clear suspects, to verify witness statements, or to find new leads, despite the fact that most state and federal courts prohibit testimony based on lie detectors.
Half of the guilty people defeated the polygraph test by using a galvanic skin response.
It is difficult to detect the use of countermeasures, which is a serious problem for examiners.
Imagine being "hooked up" to a polygraph.
An examiner wants you to tell the truth when he walks into the room.
Polygraph tests have been viewed as an invasion of privacy and have been criticized on ethical, le gal, and scientific grounds.
The basic premise is faulty and a specific lie response does not exist.
If you were hooked up to a polygraph, you could react in any of these ways.
Errors can result when we try to measure deception directly.
Critics note that polygraphs can have a high degree of accuracy, but that examiners often had access to information beyond the polygraph, which could improve accuracy.
Efforts to identify guilty persons will identify some honest people as de ceptive, and some critics describe the number of errors as "substan tial" Some individuals identified as having psychopathic tendencies seem to be able to avoid detection by polygraph examina tions because of their reduced GSR.