Egyptian culture was imposed on the native population by the Egyptian government.
Children from elite families were brought to the Egyptian royal court in order to make sure their relatives behaved well in Nubia.
Nubians were archers in the Egyptian armed forces.
The manufactured goods they brought back to Nubia were found in their graves.
Stone temples to Egyptian gods were built by the Nubians.
It is possible that the depiction of Amon with the head of a ram is a blend of the Egyptian god and the Nubian ram deity.
Its history can be divided into two parts.
Between the eighth and fourth centuries b.c.e., the former Egyptian headquarters was the primary center.
The kings of Nubia ruled Egypt for half a century from 712 to 660 b.c.e.
The way they conducted themselves was similar to that of Egyptian rulers.
Nubian culture has more Egyptian custom.
They kept their Nubian names and were depicted with their physical independence from Egypt.
They inaugurated an artistic and cultural renaissance, build and the influence of sub ing on a monumental scale for the first time in centuries, and rein in Egyptian art.
In 701 b.c.e., the Nubian dynasty made a mistake.
The Nubian monarchs were driven back to their southern domain by the Assyrians after they invaded Egypt.
The religious center of the kingdom was once again named Napata.
Egyptian culture remained strong.
Sub-Saharan cultural patterns gradually replaced Egyptian ones.
The Egyptian hieroglyphs gave way to a new set of symbols.
People continued to worship Amon, an Egyptian goddess of fertility and sexuality, but they had to share the stage with Nubian deities.
Egyptian, Greco-Roman, and indigenous traditions were combined in Meroitic art.
The influence of sub-Saharan Africa is reflected in the role played by women of the royal family.
The king's son succeeded him in the matrilineal system.
Nubian queens were sometimes in partnership with their husbands.
They were involved in warfare, diplomacy, and the building of temples and pyramid tombs.
In Egyptian imagery, they are depicted as smiting enemies in battle and being suckled by the mother-goddess Isis.
For its time, Meroe was a huge city, more than a square mile in area, dominating fertile grass lands and trade routes.
The city was a major center for iron smelting.
Nubia's natural wealth and location on the trade route between detect buried structures discovered a large palace.
The early rise of a complex civilization lined with stone rams was explained by an avenue Nubian gold, which was approached by Egypt's hunger for The Temple of Amon.
During long periods of Egyptian domination, as well as a period that has been regarded as divine, the ruler was assisted by Nubian rulers who were influenced by Egyptian practices.
Nubia came under stronger cultural Meroe collapsed in the early fourth century due to the influence of sub-Saharan Africa.
The city of Meroe was large and impressive, with monumental ened when profitable commerce with the Roman palaces, temples, and boulevards.
Empire was diverted to the Red Sea and was a center of metallurgy.
The southern peninsulas of Europe share in the mild climate of the Mediterranean lands and are separated from "continental" Europe to the north by high mountains.
The history of southern Europe in antiquity is mostly related to the Mediterranean and Middle East until the Roman conquests north of the Alps.
The nations of France, Germany, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania were well suited to agriculture and herding.
It had a pleasant climate with cold winters, warm summers, and plenty of rain.
It was endowed with natural resources such as timber and metals, and large rivers allowed travel and trade.
Celtic civilization began in central Europe in the first millennium b.c.e.
Celtic civilization was the dominant cultural style in Europe north of the Alps.
Both warfare and trade were involved in the Celts' interactions with the peoples of the Mediterranean.
Humans have lived in this part of Europe for thousands of years, but their lack of a system of writing severely limits our knowledge of the earliest inhabitants.
The historical record was entered by people sharing.
After 1000 b.c.e., archaeological remains first appeared in parts of present-day Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic.
Natural locations were made more defensible by earthwork fortifications.
Mediterranean societies were trading with Celtic elites.
The styles of Celtic manufacture and art may have been stimulated by this contact.
The period in which Celtic groups migrated to many parts of Europe coincides with the new cultural features.
There are hundreds of fortresses found across Europe.
They were centers of administration, gathering points for Celtic armies, manufacturing centers, storage depots for food and trade goods, and places of refuge.
The natural defense offered by a hill could be improved by the construction of ditches and earthwork walls.
The Gallic Wall, made of a combination of earth, stone, and timber, was particularly effective because it was able to absorb the pounding from siege engines.
Rome was sacked in 490 b.c.e.
by other Celtic groups.
The differences are more important than the similarities among Celtic peoples.
Greek and Roman writers were struck by the appearance of male Celts-- their big, burly, long red hair, shaggy mustaches, and loud, deep voices--and by their strange apparel, trousers, and twisted gold neck collars.
The warriors who fought naked and made trophies of their enemies' heads were terrifying.
The Celts were fond of war and were fond of boasting and exaggerating.
Caesar conquered Gaul between 58 and 51 b.c.e.
By the time of the Roman invasion, many Celtic groups in Gaul had once been ruled by kings, but by the time of the Greek and Roman invasions, they had chosen public officials.
An elite class of warriors, professional groups of priests and bards, and commoners made up Celtic society.
The warriors owned both wealth and power.
The people worked on their land.
The Celts built houses out of wattle and daub, a wooden framework filled in with clay and straw, with thatched straw roofs.
A wooden fence surrounds several houses belonging to related families.
The stage of political and social development of the Celts in Gaul is more complex than that of the Welsh and Irish warriors.
They raided one another's flocks, feasted on drunken feasts, and engaged in contests of strength and wit.
They spent years studying prayers, secret rituals, legal precedents, and other traditions.
The one Celtic institu lore that crossed tribal lines was the priesthood.
The Celtic peoples were feuding with the Druids.
The silver vessel was found in a swamp, but it must have come from somewhere else.
It is usually from the second or first century b.c.e.
Celtic warriors on horse and on foot have long battle-horns and lozenge-shaped shields.
There is a horned deity on the inside right.
The Celts tilled the heavy soils of continental Europe to support large populations.
Their skills were better than those of the Mediterranean peoples.
Celts built sturdy ships that braved ocean conditions and developed extensive trade networks along Europe's large, navigable rivers.
Celtic traders from southwest England brought tin to Greek buyers in southern France.
Child rearing, food production, and some crafts were some of the things women focused on.
They were superior to women in the Middle East and in the Greek and Roman Mediterranean.
Celtic women are depicted as strong and proud.
Women who sit at banquets with their husbands are portrayed in Welsh and Irish tales.
Both parties contributed property in the marriage.
If the other died, each had the right to inherit.
The southern women had less freedom in their sexual relations than the Celtic women did.
Rich collections of clothing, jewelry, and furniture have been found in the tombs of elite women.
Leading members of other tribes were married to the daughters of the elite.
When the Romans invaded Celtic Britain in the first century c.e., they sometimes were opposed by Celtic tribes headed by queens, although some experts think this was an abnormal circumstance created by the Roman invasion itself.
Historians know the names of more than four hundred Celtic gods and goddesses.
"The Mothers," three goddesses depicted together holding symbols of abundance, probably played a part in a fertility cult.
The Celts worshiped at springs, groves, and hilltops, even though they didn't build temples.
The burial of elite members of early Celtic soci began to spread across Europe.
In Irish and archaeological discoveries and the written reports of Greek Welsh legends, heroes and gods pass back and forth and Roman observers depict them as impulsive and fond between the natural and supernatural worlds much of war.
Celtic priests set forth a doctrine of reincarnation that was dominated by warrior elites.
The rebirth of the soul in a new body was served by hill-forts.
The Celts worshiped many gods in natural settings.
The Roman Empire's conquest of Celtic lands was followed later by ways.
Germanic invasions pushed Celtic language and culture to modern Spain and France, which are on the western edge of the European continent.
Celtic peoples maintained their language, art, and culture into modern times.
The process of peopling the Americas may have been more complex than previously thought and may have involved people traveling by sea as well as trekking across a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska.
Humans reached the Western Hemisphere through a series of migrations from Asia.
Some scholars believe that the first migrations took place as early as 35,000 to 25,000 b.c.e., but most agree on a later date of 18,000 to 14,000 b.c.e.
For at least fifteen thousand years, the people of the Western Hemisphere were virtually isolated from the rest of the world.
Over thousands of years the population of the Americas grew and spread throughout the hemisphere, adapting to environments that included polar extremes, tropical rain forests, and high mountain ranges.
In Mexico and northern Central America, two of the hemisphere's most impressive cultural traditions were developed.
For more than a thousand years, the cultural legacies of the Olmec and Chavin would persist.
There is a lot of geographic and climatic diversity in the region.
It 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 The microenvironments of the region include the tropical forests of the Peten and Gulf of Mexico coast, the rain forest of the southern Yucatan and the scrub forest of the northern Yucatan.
Amerindian peoples developed specialized technologies that exploited indigenous plants and animals, as well as minerals like obsidian.
The region's rich plant diversity and fishing made early settlements dependent on it.
corn, beans, and squash had been domesticated.
Manioc was grown in the floodplains.
The ability of farmers to produce surpluses allowed the first stages of craft specialization.
Trade and cultural exchange occurred after contacts across environmental boundaries.
The gradual appearance of powerful political and religious elites was the result of enhanced trade, increasing agricultural productivity, and rising population.
As religious and political elites emerged, they used their prestige and authority to organize the population to dig irrigation and drainage canals, develop raised fields in wetlands, and build monumental religious and civic buildings.
The center of Olmec civilization was located near the Atlantic coast of Mexico.
The first center was located at San Lorenzo.
In the absence of written records, the ancient names are unknown.
The relationship among these centers is not clear.
There is no evidence to suggest that they are either rival city-states or dependent centers of centers.
Each center developed its own way to exploit construction.
The Olmec centers were eventually abandoned and their monuments were defaced and destroyed.
Some archaeologists think that the events are evidence of internal upheavals or military attacks by neighboring peoples, while others think they are rituals associated with the death of a ruler.
Olmec urban centers were dominated by large platforms and mounds of earth.
Because of the absence of dense housing precincts, scholars believe these centers accommodated the collective ritual and political activities that brought the rural population to the cities at special times in the year.
Some of the platforms were used as foundations for elite residences.
Since these centers had small permanent populations, the Olmec elite was able to require and direct the labor of thousands of people from surrounding settlements for low-skill tasks like moving dirt and stone construction materials.
The buildings were decorated with carvings and sculptures by skilled artisans who lived in or near the urban core.
They produced high-quality crafts, such as carved jade figurines, necklaces, and ceremonial knives and axes.
There is evidence that a class of merchants traded with distant peoples for obsidian, jade, and pottery.
While the elite lived in houses decorated with finely crafted objects and wore elegant cloth ing and jewelry, the commoners lived in small structures constructed of sticks and mud.
The commoners were helped by increased food production by the collective labor organization of the Olmec elites.
People liked a more varied diet.
Commoner households have founditarian pots and small ceramic figurines as well as small stone carvings associated with religious belief.
This shows that some advantages gained from growing elite prosperity were shared across the society.
It seems likely that the rise of major urban centers coincides with the appearance of a form of kingship that combined religious and secular roles.
The stone heads suggest the authority of the rulers and their kin groups.
Most archaeologists believe that the portraits were carved to honor individual rulers.
The heads are close to major urban centers such as San Lorenzo.
The best-known monuments of Olmec culture are the stone sculptures.
The Olmec elite used religious rituals to control the society.
There are giant heads.
The elevated platforms and mounds were used for these rituals.
Evidence of bloodletting and human sacrifice can be found in all the urban centers.
The Olmec deities had both male and female natures.
The human and animal characteristics were mixed together.
The ability of humans to transform themselves into powerful animals, such as jaguars, crocodiles, snakes, and sharks, is a common decorative motif.
The jaguar was associated with rulers.
The shamans attached to the elite organized religious life provided practical advice about the periodic rains essential to agricultural life.
From their close observation of the stars, they produced a calendar that was used to organize ritual life and agriculture, and they laid out the ceremonial centers in alignment with the paths of certain stars.
They may have been responsible for the development of a form of writing that may have influenced later innovations among the Maya.
The Olmec were the originators of a ritual ball game that became an enduring part of ceremonial life.
There isn't much evidence for an Olmec empire.
The power of the Olmec is unlikely to have been projected over significant distances given the limited technological and agricultural capacity of the society.
As far away as the Pacific coast of Central America and the Central Plateau of Mexico, jade carvings decorated with the jaguar-god show that the Olmec exercised cultural influence over a wide area.
The influence would last for a long time.
The fundamental elements of material culture, technology, religious belief and ritual, political organization, art, architecture, and sports were shared by all subsequent Mesoamerican civilizations.
The development of human society in the Andes was influenced by geography and environment.
The region's diverse environments--a mountainous core, arid coastal plain, and dense interior jungles--challenged human populations encourage the development of specialized regional production as well as widespread social institutions and cultural values that facilitate interregional exchanges and shared labor responsibilities.
The abundance of fish and mollusks along the coast of Peru provided a dependable food supply, while the introduction of corn (maize) cultivation from Mesoamerica increased the food supplies of the coast and interior foothills, allowing greater levels of urbanization.
The coastal populations traded fish, shellfish, and decorative shells for corn, other foods, and textiles in the foothills.
The two regions exchanged ideas.
Recent discoveries show that as early as 2600 b.c.e.
A population of thousands and a political structure capable of organizing the production and distribution of maritime and agricultural products suggest the size of the public works in Caral.
Large areas of the coastal plain and the Andean foothills were dominated by Chavin.
The intersection of trade routes allowed the city's rulers to organize and prosper from trade among distinct ecological zones and gain an advantage over regional rivals.
The coastal economy was linked to the inland producers of corn, potatoes, and quinoa, as well as the herders of llamas in the high mountain valleys.
The construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, temples, palaces, and large irrigation and drainage projects were made possible by the development of these trade networks.
These labor obligations were organized by groups of related families who claimed descent from a common ancestor.
Group members thought of themselves as brothers and sisters and were obligated to aid one another, providing a model for the organization of labor and the distribution of goods.
The labor needed to transport goods was decreased by the llamas.
A single driver could control ten to thirty animals, each carrying up to 70 pounds, and the beast of burden in the Ameri could only carry 50 pounds.
The llamas promoted specialization of production and increased trade by moving goods from one area to another.
They were crucial to Chavin's development, like the camel in the evolution of transSaharan trade.
Class distinctions seem to have gone up.
There is evidence that both local chiefs and a more powerful king dominated the politics.
The priests directed religious life.
Similar to the Olmec symbol, the most common decorative motifs in sculpture, pottery, and textiles were a jaguar-man.
There was a large complex of multilevel platforms made of packed earth or rubble and faced with cut stone or adobe.
These platforms were used to build small buildings for ritual purposes.
Relief carvings of serpents, condors, jaguars, or human forms adorned nearly all the buildings.
It had a narrow interior before 1000 B.C.E.
They had contacts between the two regions.
Archaeological persisted long after.
Olmec societies were ruled by kings who were also associated with the rise of Chavin.
There are giant stone heads.
The Olmec shamans said superior-quality textiles with the spirit world, supervised the calendar, and may have as well as gold crowns, breastplates, and jewelry created a system of writing.
llamas, the only domesticated beasts of objects, the quality and abundance of pottery, and burden in the hemisphere, were used to transport goods between regions.
The dispersal of Chavin's pottery styles, religious motifs, and architectural forms over a wide area has led some scholars to claim that the capital imposed some form of political and economic control over its neighbors by military force.
Most scholars believe that the development of an attractive religious belief system and related rituals was more important than the influence of Chavin on the Olmec civilization.
The most potent religious symbol in the area was a jaguar deity, and archaeological evidence shows that it was a pilgrimage site.
There is no evidence that the eclipse of Chavin was associated with conquest or rebellion.
Increased warfare is thought to have taken place around 200 b.c.e.
The technologies, material culture, statecraft, architecture, and urban planning associated with Chavin influenced the Andean region for centuries, regardless of what caused the collapse of this powerful culture.
The patterns of organization, technology, behavior, and belief of the early civilizations of China, Nubia, the Celts, and the Olmec were responses to the challenges and opportunities of their time.
In the North China Plain, the presence of great, flood-prone rivers and the lack of dependable rainfall led to the formation of powerful institutions capable of organizing large numbers of people to dig and maintain irrigation channels and build dikes.
From the beginning of Chinese history, an authoritarian central government has been a feature.
The formation of a strong state in Nubia began with the need for protection from desert nomads and the Egyptian rulers who coveted Nubian gold and other resources.
The rulers of Kerma, Napata, and Meroe were wealthy and powerful because of the control of resources and the trade route between Africa and the north.
The Celtic peoples of continental Europe did not develop a strong state.
They had tile lands with adequate rain for agriculture, as well as timber for fuel and construction.
Kinship groups dominated by warrior elites were the usual form of organization.
After 500 b.c.e., the Celtic elites began to expand into lands to the west and south, and initially traded for luxury goods with the Mediterranean.
The Roman Empire incorporated many Celtic groups.
Both societies created networks that brought together resources and products from different parts of the world.
The existence of ruling elites that gathered wealth and organized labor for the construction of monumental centers is known, but little is known about the political and social organization of these societies.
The elites used religion to strengthen their position.
The rulers of China were an important link between their kingdom and powerful ancestors and gods.
oracle bones were used to deliver information of value to the ruler and kingdom, and Bronze vessels were used to make offerings to ancestral spirits.
The Zhou successors came up with the idea of the ruler being the divine Son of Heaven who ruled in accord with the Mandate of Heaven.
The civilization that developed in Nubia was influenced by its interactions with the more advanced society in Egypt.
Nubian rulers built temples and pyramids on the Egyptian model, but they also created Egyptian and indigenous gods.
The sites of dazzling ritual displays reinforced the authority of the elites who resided in them.
Olmec shamans attached to the elite made contact with supernatural powers, organized religious life, and directed the planning of the ceremonial centers to be aligned with the stars.
The Druids were an elite class of priests who performed vital religious, legal, and educational functions.
The Celts worshiped hundreds of gods and goddesses in natural surroundings, unlike the other civilizations that built temples and ceremonial centers.
Powerful civilizations appeared later in the Western Hemisphere than in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Environmental differences have been the focus of recent theories.
The Eastern Hemisphere has a large number of wild plant and animal species that are well suited to domestication.
The natural east-west axis of Europe and Asia allowed for the rapid spread of domesticated plants and animals to the same latitudes.
Population growth, more complex political and social organization, and increased technological sophistication were caused by settled agriculture.
In the Americas, there were fewer wild plant and animal species that could be domesticated, and the north-south axis of the continents made it more difficult for domesticated species to spread.
The processes that foster the development of complex societies evolved more slowly as a result.
His panied by perceptive introductions.
The question of why tech Burger is difficult to answer.
The earliest complex society in the Americas was set.
The fruit 2000 is emphasized.
Devotes a lot of attention to ancient China and the Egyptian and Nubian cultures.
The introduction to ancient Celtic civilization was illustrated.
O'Connor, David, uses a division into general topics.
The text is based on an exhibition of Nubian antiquities.
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