In the context of a developing organisms, all of these pro research methods take place.
Large segments of the culture in the United States can have differences in sensory abilities.
The various periods of growth are shown in Table 9-1.
Cognitive processes and social interactions are some of the qualitative changes.
We think in different ways about ourselves, our friends, and our environment.
If he could control the environment, he could teach any child to be a doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant, or even a thief.
Many parents and most present-day psychologists don't agree with the idea that the environment can influence ment.
Parents are environmentalists until they have more than one child.
It seems like it's possible to get rid of anything that happens with one child.
Parents realize that they did not treat the two children differently enough to account for the behavioral differences between them when their second child turns out to be different from the first child.
If you want to understand how behavior geneticists look at how people behave, you need to understand some of the differences you see in your friends and relatives.
Before reading further, you should write down some of your observations.
Some people may have exceptional musical talent, while others may be tone-deaf.
Some of your friends and relatives are shy.
One of the most significant discoveries of behavior ge theory is that environmental factors are experienced differently by children in the same and cognitive development family.
Twins who share the same genetic makeup.
They don't have the same personality points to the influence of environmental factors.
If we want to understand the development of human thoughts, we must learn to distinguish the influences of nature and nurture.
Special factors research methods are used by developmental psychologists.
There are unique challenges faced by psychologists conducting research on developmental processes.
Human development research may take longer than other areas of psychology.
velopmental research can take months, years, or even decades.
You may be interested in how the visual ability of young people changes over time.
You would use a sequential design to study this phenomenon.
Longitudinal studies allow the researcher to see behavioral trends over time, whereas cross-sectional studies allow the researcher to answer a specific question.
Longitudinal studies can be very time consuming.
Cross sectional studies don't tell the researcher about behavioral trends over time.
The children in this grade school class are all the same age.
The effects on shyness of being born in different decades from 1950 to 1990 are determined by the differences among cohort.
There is an increase in the validity of a research finding if it is verified across cultural and age groups.
A human grows from a cell that is smaller than the tip of a pin.
A man releases a lot of sperm in a single ejaculation.
The sperm begin their journey from the woman's vagina to her fallopian tubes, where they may meet and penetrate an ovum, which is many times larger than the sperm.
Most sperm are attacked by the woman's white blood cells when they are on the way to the fallopian tubes.
It is amazing that any sperm can survive the journey to the ovum.
A healthy couple having sex without contraception has only a 25% to 30% chance of having a baby.
Most conceptions occur on the day of ovulation or dur fertilization when the sperm are present.
The uterus is a fist-sized, pear shaped organ that is attached to the inner wall of the fallopian tubes.
During the next nine months, cell division continues at a furious pace, eventually producing an individual with billions of cells, all of which contain the same genetic information.
Nearly one-third of implanted zygotes are rejected from the uterus due to spontaneous abortion.
Some of the early mis carriages have defects.
fertilization occurs when the sperm and ovum give birth to a baby, which will inherit the genetic material that will influence its development.
All human cells except the sperm and ovum contain 46 chromosomes, which is an embryo, between two weeks and nine weeks after conception.
There are 23 pairs with one member contributed by each parent.
Large segments of DNA are called chromosomes.
Our understanding of the mechanisms of heredity can be traced to the work of a monk, who conducted a series of experiments using gar den peas.
The key principles of hereditary transmis sion are still relevant today.
People believed that a child's traits were a blend of the par process of cell division in which the child's genes were similar to eye color.
When peas were bred with purple information, the offspring had purple flowers instead of pink ones.
There are units of hereditary material.
Normal hemoglobin has a red color and carries oxygen to the body.
The amount of oxygen in the blood is affected by the form drop.
The low oxygen level causes cells to be crescent-shaped.
There is genetic material in the chromosomes.
Each cell has a nucleus.
The sperm and ovum have 46 chromosomes.
There are genes on each of the chromosomes.
The children of two carriers have a one-in-four chance of having normal hemoglobin, a one-in-two chance of being a carrier, and a one-in-four chance of having sickle-cell anemia.
African Americans have a higher incidence of the blood disorder because they are more likely to have the same genes as other people.
People from families of Eastern European Jewish origin are more likely to have the disease.
The mother is a carrier of the disease.
One-half of the normal genes will be carriers and one-fourth will have the disease.
Skin color, intel principle of heredity, and temperament are examples of polygenic inheritance.
The resemblance of these children to each other is not as great as that of other children of the same parents.
The cell immediately divides into two different types of cells.
Researchers can study the relation of heredity and environment with identical twins.
Twins sharing the same genetic material would reflect genetic influences, while differences would reflect environmental causes.
The sex of a child is not the basis for divorce if the mother fails to produce male offspring.
The sex chromosomes are the 23rd pair of chromosomes.
Both sex chromosomes are labeled XX in females.
The sex of the sperm may be X or Y.
The baby will be female if the sperm contributes an X chromosomes.
The baby will be male if the sperm contributes a Y chromosome.
A sex by one sperm is called a sex by the X or Y genes.
The X and Y chromosomes are identical and carry monozygotic twins.
Males are more vulnerable to inheritable disorders than females.
In females, a defect can be dominated by a gene on the other X chromosomes, while in males, the Y chromosome may not have the dominant gene.
Sex-linked traits are those that are related.
About 8 of every 100 males in the United States have red-green color blindness.
The most common form of color blindness is controlled by genes.
A female may have two genes on one X chromosomes, one for color blindness and the other for normal vision, which is dominant on the other X chromosomes.
A male with a color blindgene has no dominant gene for normal color vision on the Y chromosome, so he will be color blind.
The inability of the blood to clot is a sex-linked disorder.
Major until birth organ systems are formed during the second to ninth weeks after fertilization, when the developing human is called an embryo.
The developing organ that develops in the uterus will have male external genitals if they start secreting testosterone.
The development of a female is caused by the absence of testosterone.
The fetus is about 3 inches long and weighs about 1 ounce when it is 3 months old.
The arms, legs, hands, and feet are visible and move in response to stimulation.
Although it is immersed inamniotic fluid, the fetus begins to move as early as the end of the third month of pregnancy.
When the fetus is large enough to be felt through the abdomi nal wall, the mother begins to feel movement.
The exchange of waste products from the mother to the child is possible through the use of the placenta.
The fetus's blood is taken up by the mother's blood and sent to the fetus's body.
There are barriers to DevelOpment.
If a pregnant woman's diet is not adequate, the baby is more likely to be born premature or with a low birth weight.
Babies with low birth weight are 40 times more likely to die before their first birthday.
It has been shown that low-weight newborns who received massage therapy for 5 to 10 days had a 31% to 47% weight gain.
Canada, Germany, Iran, Japan, China, and Norway have high numbers of low-birth-weight infants.
The developing baby (fetus) Agency, 2011.
Lack of adequate financial resources is the most important factor in causing this high rate of infant mortality.
Adequate care for pregnant women also means avoiding stress.
The body is being stressed by the cord.
Drugs, alcohol, and viruses are some of the factors that can affect a fetus.
There is a chance that the virus that causes the German mea sles can cross the placenta to the fetus.
The chances of a specific time during the development of birth defects are zero if the mother contracts rubella after 16 weeks.
The critical period is when the effects of rubella should take place.
Mothers who drank the first eight weeks of development are more likely to give birth to teratogens.
If the mother has AIDS, a baby may contract it as well.
The baby may be exposed to the mother's blood head circumference during delivery, or the baby may be exposed to the AIDS virus by lower birth weight.
antibiotics, barbiturates, large doses of vitamins A and B, and an acne preparation are some of the drugs that cross the placenta freely.
Babies who are born to mothers who are addicted to cocaine will also suffer a painful withdrawal process.
Babies born to cocaine-addicted mothers may exhibit behaviors such as hypertension, rigidity, and poor sleep-wake schedules, which can be used in the example of the ultrasound procedure.
Other detrimental effects include impairments in motor development, ability to regulate attention, and language.
Fetal tobacco syndrome can occur if a mother smokes less than five cigarettes per day during preg nancy.
Maternal smoking of cigarettes and marijuana increases the level of carbon dioxide in the blood of the fetus and is related to higher rates of infant death.
According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 16% of pregnant women in the United States smoke.
Scientists have known for a long time that children of alcoholic parents have learning and development problems.
Doctors discovered that the mother's drinking habits could affect her baby's health.
Small head, flat midface, hearing loss, and low intelligence are some of the signs of FAS.
Maternal alcohol use is associated with intellectual deficiencies, poor concentration, motor difficulties, and learn ing problems.
About 12% of pregnant women use alcohol while pregnant, with less than 1% reporting heavy drinking, according to recent statistics.
The ability to detect defects in the developing fetus has been improved by technological advances.
There are a number of techniques that can be used for this purpose.
The sounds bounce back like waves from a submarine.
If the mother's age is over 35, a family history of ge for all of the terms defined in the margins of the section netic defects, or detection of gross abnormality byechocardiography suggest the need for more precise testing by amniocentesis.
A sufficient amount ofamniotic fluid can be present 14 to 16 weeks after conception.
Fetal loss and foot deformity can be caused by an increase in amniocentesis tests.
Fetal cells are analyzed after floating inamniotic fluid.
Amniocentesis is not risk-free.
There is a small chance of a woman miscarrying.
Down syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal anomalies and can be found in about 1 in 800 births.
In most Down syndrome cases, the individual has three rather than two chromosomes.
Children with Down syndrome are often in the mild-to-moderate range of mental retardation and may also have behavior disorders such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
If these malfor mations are not corrected, they are at risk for premature death, relative to normal children.
Several other sex-linked chromosomal abnormality may occur depending on the number and type of chromo somes present.
Turner's syndromes, fragile X, and Klinefelter's are some of the anomalies.
These anomalies can result in physical and mental retardation.
Amniocentesis will provide answers for Mike and his wife, who are worried about having a Down syndrome baby because Mike's brother has the syndrome.
The fact that Mike's brother has Down syndrome doesn't mean that he and Mike are at risk.
The most important risk factor is the age of the person.
She is less likely to have a Down syndrome child if she is under 40.
Most newborns emerge red and with facial injuries due to the narrow reflexes in which the infant turns its ness of the birth canal.
The baby is covered with a substance resembling cheese, and the head in the direction of a touch head is not straight.
The "bundle of joy" on its face is only capable of crying, sleeping, and excreting.
After birth, a baby's motor behavior appears to be uncoordinated and purposeless, however, newborns enter the world with several reflexes.
If you lightly press a noise or the sensation of being finger in a baby's palm, it will grasp with more force than you might think.
The toes fan upward when the bottom of the newborn's foot is stroked.
A baby that is unable to do more than move reflexively may look like a picture of psy chological incompetence.
Newborns are remarkably competent, a closer look at them shows.
When a baby is born, its hearing is very advanced.
Babies can hear their mother's voice just hours after birth.
While the baby is in the uterus, that recognition ability may develop.
12 women were asked to read a Dr. Seuss story twice a day during the last five to six weeks of their pregnancies.
Three days after birth, their babies varied the way they sucked on a pacifier depending on whether or not they heard a story or not.
The babies sucked more in response to the story they had heard while in the womb compared with a new story.
Estimates of the newborn's visual acuity range from 20/300 to 20/800, but it improves to about 20 by 6 to 8 months.
Babies with less than perfect vision can focus on objects that are about 8 to 10 inches away, which is the distance between the baby and the care giver.
Babies are fascinated by faces whether they are presented in two or three dimensions in the flesh or on film.
Babies without prior experience with cultural standards of beauty prefer to look at attractive faces, even though they don't have that experience with their mother's face.
By the fourth month of the baby's development, smell and taste receptors are likely to be present.
Premature infants are capable of smell, suggesting that the fetus is capable of smell.
The first few weeks after birth seem to be when the baby's smell sensitivity increases the most.
Babies can discriminate between bitter and sour tastes.
Newborns are able to see the world around them.
In Chapter 6 we saw that John and Rosalie Rayner were able to condition fear in an older infant, Albert.
Researchers have shown that newborn infants can be conditioned.
When appropriate stimulation is presented, you must select a behavior that occurs frequently.
There are other components that need to be considered.
Try to remember the name of the element.
Chapter 6 will be reviewed.
Write down your answers.
The unconditioned re sponse is when sucking is a frequent and automatic response.
A nipple placed in a baby's mouth is an unconditioned stimulation.
The mother could repeat the question if chapter nine lost the nipple.
We did this in Chapter 6.
Reinforcement can help infants learn.
A research study shows that infants as young as two months after birth can learn to kick when a mobile is suspended over the crib.
The research shows that the memory of this learning session can be retained for several days.
Researchers have looked at how infants learn.
Neonates as young as 72 hours old were found to imitate two behaviors: protruding the tongue and moving the head.
Think about the elements of the task that must be performed by a 3-day-old baby if you stick your tongue out and move your head to imitate another person.
Children are able to discriminate between tongue and head movement.
The ability of the baby to imitate the behavior of an adult must be turned into a behavioral imitation.
The next step is to generalize the source.
The development of the motor and nervous systems is what it refers to in humans.
At the peak of brain development, hundreds of thousand of new cells are added each minute.
A spurt in cell development just before birth gives the newborn most of its brain cells.
Cells in the cortex are not yet fully connected to the lower brain centers, which are responsible for reflexes, breathing, digestion, and heart beat.
Exposure to pollutants, such as dioxin, the industrial chemical PCB, and lead, as well as a parasites found in the fecal matter of cats, can affect the connections among these cells.
During the rest of a person's life, the rate of physical development is not equal.
By the first birthday, height has increased from 20 to 30 inches and weight has tripled from 7.5 to over 22 pounds.
Our discussion of nature and nurture shows that inher physical development owes a lot to her environment and the frequent use of her t-ball set.
The source is adapted from frankenburg et al.
The table shows the physical skills that develop during the first two years of life, and the approximate age at which they are mastered by children in the United States.
Babies and toddlers perform motor behaviors at younger ages than shown in Table 9-2.
The average child takes longer to develop.
Preco cious development is a source of pleasure and pride for parents, but slower motor development is not necessarily a cause for concern or alarm.
There are steps that can be taken when a baby's development is delayed.
The Scales of Infant Development can be used to determine whether steps are required.
The scales give indications of average, below-average, and above-average responses for a range of behaviors and stages of intellectual development for children between the ages of 2 months and 2.5 years.
The physical development that occurs during infancy and childhood is impressive.
In the next sections, we can see that cognitive and psychosocial development occur at an impressive rate.
A single parent, she works to support her daughter.
There are growing waiting lists at day-care centers.
Little is known about the impact day care has on the development of young children.
The effects of day care are studied by psychologists who are interested in the development of young children.
The development of the individual'spsycho as well as factors that influence the ability to interact with other people are considered.
Newborns prefer human faces to other visual stimuli.
By the time a child is a year old, social behaviors begin to emerge.
The differences they observed in their own children were obvious even during the first weeks of life.
They were impressed by the low correlations between environmental influences and the child's psychological development.
They decided to look at the causes and consequences of temperament differences.
Their mood was mostly positive.
These early findings lead to the research of additional dimensions of temperament such as fearful distress, irritable distress, activity level, attention span, persistence, and positive affect.
The child's temperament is likely to last throughout infancy.
Some char acteristics, such as being highly fearful or highly reactive, may continue into adoles cence.
Freud was the first person to suggest that the early years of life are important for personality development.
The way in which children resolve conflicts between their biological urges and the demands of society was the subject of his theory.
Chapter nine is a series of stages for a child.
The stages are described more fully in Chapter 11.
Freud believed that each stage had the potential to affect the personality of the developing child.
A stage theory of personality development was proposed by the man.
Erikson did not stress the need to resolve biological needs.
Our personality is shaped by the way we deal with crises as we get older.
Some paths will be more appropriate in one culture than others.
The child may have a psychological need to be independent.
Everything is fine if this child grows up in a Western society that values independence.
If this child grows up in a collectivist society that does not value independence, he will develop more group related activities and behaviors.
Babies experience two crises.
There will be development that stresses the importance of food.
The development of a sense of trust is helped by loving caregivers.
When one's caregivers and environment are important for developing trust in oneself, that is when trust in that is created.
erikson's first psychosocial crisis begins with a sense of how their (birth to 15 months) behavior is controlled or determined.
If children feel that their behavior is not under their control but is determined by other people or external forces, they develop an extereme relationship with their primary caregivers.
Doubt and shame about one's ability to function frequently can be trusted by the company.
The greater a child's internal sense of con children, the more independence he or she will feel and exhibit.
Children can begin to do things on their own if they have a sense of independence.
Some behaviors, such as playing by the rules and obeying one's par, in which children ents, can produce desirable consequences; others, such as cheating or not obeying one's begin to evaluate the consequences parents, produce undesirable consequences.
It is time for children to learn to become productive members of society by acquiring the skills and knowledge that will allow them to become productive mems of society once they have developed basic trust, autonomy, and initiative.
Supporters of the theory say that it captures the reality of the changes that occur as we grow and develop through a child and an adult.
The summary preference for holding or clinging the chart is on page 395 of the chapter.
If you read the sections carefully, you will see that personal teddy bears are developed in the context of significant other people.
The attachment comfort and warmth of parents to their children is a major factor in shaping their personality.
The first mental studies on the effects of attachment were done by Harry and Marguerite Harlow.
Babies were separated from their mothers around 8 hours after birth.
The monkeys were raised in mental chambers where they were exposed to an object that was a surrogate mother.
The baby monkeys were allowed to come into contact with both objects.
The baby monkeys preferred the soft, cloth-covered mother.
They ran to the mother for safety and security when confronted with a frightening situation.