ChAPTER 6 -- Part 1: Religious Rivalries and India's Golden
He died after having delivered the message.
Persians went back to Asia.
The statue depicts Pheidippides, the Athenian soldier who ran 26 miles to bring his fellow citizens news of victory at the Battle of Marathon and died as he made the announcement.
The marathon was named after Pheidippides because of his heroic feat.
The new Persian king, Xerxes, took charge of the plan to conquer the Greeks.
By 480 b.c.e., he had amassed an army and fleet that outnumbered Greek forces by two to one.
The Greek states held back because they thought the Persians would win.
The Greek priests were trying to predict the future.
Athens was rendered indefensible when the mountain pass was seized by the Persians.
The Persians set fire to the temples on the hill of the Acropolis after most Athenians were evacuated to an island.
Themistocles realized that the Persian navy couldn't move fast.
It could be defeated if it could be led into a narrow strait.
Themistocles told Xerxes that the Greeks were fighting.
The Persians rowed into the narrow strait of Thermopylae thinking it was their chance to finish off the Greeks.
The Persian empire stretched from the shores of the Mediterranean to Egypt and into the northeast part of India.
The Persian empire was expecting a divided Greek force, but they found that every man the Greeks had available was ready to fight them.
Xerxes thought he would be able to see and reward the bravest of his warriors when he watched the battle from a hill overlooking the strait.
There are many might-have-beens in history.
If the Persians had won, what difference would it have made to world history?
One point is certain.
Two major civiliza tions in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East were highlighted by the battle.
The kind of outside invasion that had earlier produced various Mesopotamian empires spurred the creation of a massive Persian empire.
The Persian Empire grew larger, showing the new capacities of the classical period.
Political and cultural traditions were established well beyond the classical period in present-day Iran.
Greek city-states established a presence along the eastern Mediterranean and into parts of southern Europe.
Like China and Persia, the Greeks established a strong and independent culture of their own.
Greeks called foreigners barbarians because their speech sounded like "bar, bar, bar" noises.
Greek society generated less political structures than China or Persia, but their expansion and outreach affected a large portion of western Asia and the east ern half of the Mediterranean basin.
Alexander the Great forged a military empire that briefly embraced Persia as well as the Hellenistic period as Greek states faded.
In the Middle East and the eastern Mediterranean, the Persian empire was more important than Greece for several centuries.
Significant traditions that shaped a strong Persian political and cultural presence are still visible in present-day Iran.
One of the major religions in the world history was Zoroastrianism.
As a result of Alexander the Great's conquests and his efforts to unify all the cultures in the vast territory that briefly came under his control, the Greek and Persian traditions acted in mutual warfare.
The fall of the great Egyptian and Hittite empires in the Middle East led to the rise of smaller states.
First the Assyrians and then the Persians came in.
The Persian empire empire was larger than the great Mesopotamian states of the past.
The rise of Persia illustrates some of the key innovations of the classical empire.
The core features of classical China can be compared to the themes of Persian politics.
Wide tolerance was the first.
The Persian empire embraced a number of languages and cultures, and the early Persian rulers were careful to grant considerable latitude for this diversity.
The first human rights statement was issued by Cyrus in 539, promising humane treatment and religious freedom to all inhabitants.
There was a strong authoritarian streak.
Third, and related to the centralization process, rulers developed a vital infrastructure for the whole empire.
It took 90 days from one end of the empire to the other for the system of roads to be reduced.
An east-west choice; righteous lived on after death highway, largely paved, simplified commerce and troop movement from the Indian border to the in "house of song", and another highway reached Egypt.
The first regular postal empire was established by the Persians.
Persian emperors developed a large bureaucracy because they worked so hard to integrate their vast territories.
This existed with an earlier military nobility.
Several measures were introduced to control the activities of officials assigned to distant provinces.
Tax collection was late and spies were sent out to make sure regional officials remained loyal to the central government.
The center of a new religion was Persia.
He banned the use of intoxicants.
The free choice of God over the spirit of evil was the basis of the idea of individual salvation.
The wall relief can be found on the great ceremonial stairway leading to the later emperors.
The influence of the Persian religion was much greater than that of the Greeks.
There are only a few Zoroas trians left in the world today, in Iran and through immi gration in a few other places.
Religion didn't consume all of the Persian cultural energy.
The styles of painting and architecture emerged from an important artis tic tradition.
Persian holdings were expanded by later kings.
They dominated much of the Middle East despite being unable to conquer Greece.
North Africa and the Indian river valley were conquered.
At its peak, Persia welcomed 14 million people.
Under imperial rule, the population of Persia proper doubled to four million people.
Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire.
Fine craftwork can be seen in this chariot, which was established by the Persians.
The northeastern part of the Middle East was home to a number of Persian empires after the Hellenistic period.
The major belief systems of the classical period would eventually fade in its competition with Islam, but its hold and influences continued well beyond the classical centuries.
Before the Persian empire took shape, Greece encouraged various forms of Slightly.
Many Greek city-states, including Greek-dominated cities in Greece and Mediterranean Asia, were able to increase their wealth through trade.
Several Greek centers had trading connections around the Black Sea and in Egypt and southern Italy by 700 b.c.e.
The poem is attributed to the author.
The writing system before it was easier to learn.
The work of literacy further stimulated trade by aiding in the exchange of commercial information and many authors, as well as defining gods and human nature that shaped Greek enhancing cultural life.
Definitions of the gods and human nature that profoundly shaped the work of many authors were set forth in a Greek epic poem attributed to Homeric achievement.
The rectangular gods and human nature of the temple inspired a distinctive Greek art.
Greek sculptors moved toward more realistic Greek mythos after relying on Egyptian precedent.
Greek politics took shape after 800 b.c.e.
in the city-state as a Political unit.
The city-state, a regional government centered in a major city, embraced the surrounding agricultural land as well.
Sparta is one of the key city-states.
The state of Rhode Island is about the size of Athens.
In the 5th century b.c.e., Athens had a population of roughly 250,000, of which 100,000 lived in the city proper.
The city state government came naturally to Greece because of the mountainous terrain.
By 600 b.c.e., there were nearly 300 independent cities in Greece.
The city-state form encouraged a political life of unusual intensity because no single unit dominated.
Descendants of the warrior class were responsible for most military activities in the early Greek poleis.
Free farmers were also citizens, supporting the government, but not ruling directly.
When there was only one king in the early Greek city-states, the council played a vital role.
The system was challenged from 700 b.c.e.
The 8th century saw the start of the commer cial expansion.
Major contests were escaped by some city-states.
Sparta had a strong militaristic regime.
Merchants and a growing urban manufacturing group were not happy with the rule of the aristocracy.
In many areas, agriculture changed.
They imported cheap grain from colonies in Asia, Egypt, and Sicily to provide a basic century.
The gulf between the burden of debt on farmers and the rich and poor was widened by these imports.
These developments undermined the ideals of widespread citizenship.
Other forces wanted political change.
What is now Turkey is the Aegean.
In 399 b.c.e., a jury in Athens condemned the philosopher Socrates for corrupting his students by encouraging skepticism and doubt.
He chose death over exile.
He owed his character to the city and it was better to die than be apart.
The city-state governments continued to vary after the period of greatest social tension.
Councils returned in many places.
Sparta had two kings that ruled on behalf of the military aristocracy.
Athens took the lead after the 5th century b.c.e.
when a democratic tendency gained ground.
After a few additional reforms, Athenian democracy depended on a popular assembly for authority.
All decisions of state had to be approved by this body and all citizens could propose changes in assembly meetings.
Rather than use elected representatives to rule.
The design of vases was important in Greek art.
A few leading speakers usually dominate after murdering his wife and children.
Every judicial decision could be appealed to a citizen board, and citizens served as jurors in court tri who became the Greeks' greatest mythical hero.
Most officials have been impossible.
The vase was selected by a lot on the grounds that anyone could be an administrator.
The fourth labor of hercules, in which the generals and imperial treasurers were elected from the nobility, was ordered to capture the erymanthian boar, but the assembly could remove or punish them for faulty service.
His master, eurystheus, brought the terms of office to him.
The brief was to encourage popular control.
This was a different kind of democracy than the one found in the contempo.
It depended on the size of the city-state and its citizens.
Adults were excluded from political rights.
There were no rights for women to participate in politics.
Half of the adult males were slaves or foreigners.
Even though he did not hold formal office, Pericles was an aristocracy guided development of Athenian who managed to direct affairs year after year through wise manipulation of political groups and his empire.
The trials of officials accused of serving badly were handled by citizen juries.
The person was ostracized for 10 years if one name was frequently listed.
By the end of the 5th century, the polis showed some of the weaknesses and strengths of democracy.
Ordinary citizens worked hard in the war, but the lower-class citizens often pressed for reckless expeditions that weakened the state in its military efforts and contributed to ultimate defeat.
The Greek political approach focused on political virtue and responsibility.
It was part of the ideal life to be involved in politics.
In the less typical democracies, this was true as well.
The values Confucianism emphasized in China mirrored some of the values of this approach.
In Greece, there was a larger array of political structures tossed up than there was in China, with the emphasis on a single centralized system.
The Greeks placed more value on participation than on hierarchy.
The Romans focused more on formal preparation of law and less on bureaucracy and bureaucratic codes.
Greek diplomacy and the Tensions of united effort took place during the four centuries when Greek political forms evolved.
Colonies help relieve population pressure at home.
They served as markets for processed products, including wine, cooking oil, and manufactured goods.
By the 5th century b.c.e., Greek colonies dotted the Mediterranean coast of present-day Turkey, the entire coastline of the Black Sea, and key points in northern Africa, Italy, southern France, and Spain.
The key centers of the Greek empire are shown on the map.
colonies supported the political and cultural vigor of Greece by providing new wealth.
The Greek city-states were capable of considerable coordi nation.
Wrestlers, runners, and other athletes are grouped in often bitter and sometimes rigged pan-hellenic rituals.
The Greek city-states were known for their predictions and advice.
The great empire of Persia was a person ing outside enemy.
Soon after Cyrus the Great created the Persian empire, representing the god Apollo, he turned against wealthy Greek colonies along the Asian side of the Mediterranean and received mysterious messages.
The Persian kings moved against Greece after the rebel ion failed.
The Persian army of 100,000 troops read the communication.
Persian defeats on land and sea were caused by Athenian and Spartan cooperation.
Greek independence was preserved despite the dominance of Persia.
The age of Greek politics and culture was the greatest of all time.
Greek civilization spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean on the eve of the Peloponnesian war.
Politicians tried to find ways to spend money.
Many Athenians wondered if authoritarian control of colonies based on military force and heavy tribute payment was compatible with free political life at home.
China's integration of most new territory into a single political entity gained great attention, but this type of expan sion was different.
In contrast, city-states such as Athens looked at colonies as centers to exploit for wealth and supplies, paying less attention to regional linkages.
Sparta had its own alli ance system of land-based city-states.
Competition in the Greek peninsula increased in the late 5th century b.c.e., with each side fearing that the other might gain a dominant position.
Historians have compared the cold war between the United States and the Soviet Union in the decades after World War II because of ideological conflicts.
Sparta stood for the old Greece before it was altered by extensive commerce and political change.
Boys were trained for battle and girls for the bearing of brave sons as a result of a highly military regime.
Spartan militarism was designed to control a large force of slaves.
Coins of unwieldy size discouraged use of money.
The themes of Spartan society were discipline and control.
Unlike Sparta, Athens encouraged extensive trade and a vibrant, creative culture, and its democracy was more open than Sparta's.
Both sides disliked the principles of the rival society and were aware of their differences.
Sparta's traditional principles were well-liked by some Athenians.
Many smaller cities were hostile to Athens's heavy-handedness.
In 431 b.c.e., there was an outright conflict over claims to a colonial city-state.
During the second year of the war, a plague killed one Greece and resulted in spartan victory third of the population.
There was a failure to achieve political leader to provide consistent guidance in Athens.
unification of Greece was brought about by a victory over Spartan troops.
At least in the classical world, democracy did not guarantee peace or good sense.
A new attempt to invade Sicily failed, costing Athens more than 200 ships, 5000 men, and the support of many allies.
The Athenian food supply was cut off by a Spartan general.
The city had to give up.
The city walls were torn down as Athens was deprived of its remaining ships.
In all of Greece, a political age came to an end.
Alexander's domination of Greece did not work out.
The first half of the 4th century was dominated by wars against conquests as far as the Persians.
By 355 b.c.e., Persia and India, the spread of Greek Greece had returned to a disorganized city-state.
The kingdom is located in the north of Greece.
The period of three centuries in northern Greece was opened by Macedonian conquests and was a time when Greek culture spread far into western Asia.
The basis for unification of Greece and dominant forms was no longer based on Greek city-states.
The Macedonian empire opened a new era in geography, politics, and culture.
Philip was skilled both as a general and as a diplomat, and later conquered the rest of the kingdom and developed a strong army that had more flexibility than the citizens of the poleis.
Greece was subjected to Macedonian authority.
He was able to pay mercenary troops and peasant soldiers by seizing some northern Greek territory.
He looked at the city-states of central Greece.
Philip had allies in Greek statesmen who wanted a new in 323 b.c.e.
Philip won the battle in the Greek and Persian cultures.
Macedonian garrisons ensured tax and loyalty to the new kingdom while the city-states retained their governments with rights of internal administration.
Alexander moved into Asia with about 35,000 troops.
He was able to control the Persian side of the Mediterranean coast.
Alexander defeated the main Persian army in Syria in 333 b.c.e.
Alexander wanted the whole empire and 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 He was welcomed as a pharaoh and son of a god in Egypt after moving there.
The Persian treasury was seized by the Greeks and Macedonians as revenge for the Persian threats to their homeland.
Indian border states were afraid of a worse fate if they moved against the more formidable Indian states.
Alexander wanted to combine Greek and Persian institutions and values to create a new empire.
Macedonian and Greek officials were spread through his new Middle Eastern holdings.
Alexander set an example by encouraging intermarriage with Persian and other local women.
Alexander was the ruler of the empire.
At the age of 20 he was able to consolidate his holdings, but his vision and organizational skills were not known.
Alexander the Great, as he came to be called, inspired the love and loyalty of his men by later hellenistic states knowing their strengths and weaknesses, praising their courage, arranging games to test their skills, Alexander's unexpected death quickly brought disunity to the new empire.
His successors allowed key genes for the dead.
The major provinces became kings as a result of their conquests.
Three major regional dynasties resulted in a learning and culture across the Middle east.
One of the regional themes was to portray Buddha in a Greek costume.
The religions were not brought back to the Mediterranean.
The major successor states enjoyed 125 years of prosperity.
The death of Alexander the Great encouraged trade in Greek, as goods continued to flourish.
Many Greeks moved to Mesopotamia.
The region was centered on the city dwellers and the Hellenized upper classes, while native peasants suffered from high taxes and lack of land.
warfare between Alexander the Great's kingdoms caused a decline in production and weakened Macedonia and Greece.
Rome expanded its own empire in the 2nd century b.c.e.
The end of the Greek political style was marked by the two centuries of Hellenism.
The Audience Hall of the Persian royal Palace in Persepolis is a relief from the PAsT Political rituals in Persia.
The scene shows court rituals.
When Alexander conquered Persia, he was inclined to install the same rituals, but many of his soldiers objected vociferously.
Some of the rituals may have passed to Europe, where they helped define appropriate behavior in the presence of kings.
The control exercised by foreign monarchs made them no longer serve as intense focal points.
Military empires were the focus of Hellenistic politics.
Wide exchanges were promoted by Hellenism.
Expansion of trade and use of war elephants were some of the effects of contacts with India and the African kingdom of Kush.
In science, Hellenistic leaders generated innovations.
In the Middle East and North Africa, as well as in southeastern Europe, a new framework for intellectual life was created by the spread of Greek culture.
Hellenism's most lasting legacy was this one.
There were more stories about gods and goddesses in Greece than there were in Europe.
The religious impact was greater than that of Persia.
Greece sent students to Egypt in fields like the Greek legacy to learn about Egypt and the Middle East.
They were different from Persia, China, and especially India.
Christianity and Islam were influenced by Greek ideas, but this came later.
The Greek religion was based on belief in the spirits of nature and elevated into a complex set of gods and goddesses who were seen as interfering in human life.
The stories of the gods' activities provided entertainment and could teach about appropriate moral behavior.
This religion was passed down from an earlier experience.
The basic pantheon of gods was the same as that brought to India, which in both cases assumed human form.
The Greek religion tended to be more human-centered than India's.
The gods could be jealous, sneaky, lustful, and powerful in Greek stories of the gods and heroes.
Religion helped create an important literary tradition in India and Greece.
Good stories were pro vided by the gods for deeper inquiry into human passions and weaknesses.
Greek writers mostly used the gods to explore human nature.
When times were hard, the lack of spiritual passion in Greek religion did not satisfy many workers and peasants.
Mystery religions, which had more exciting rituals and promised greater spiritual insight, were popular in Greece.
They had secret ceremonies, a strong sense of fellowship, and a greater focus on divine powers.
The mystery religions provided a con trast to more politically directed religion or philosophy, but none of the mystery religions won the currency orDurability of Daoism in China.
Greek religion didn't promote systematic thinking about ethics.
Greek philosophers tried to create systems that were separate from the religious base.
The challenge of new con tacts with Persian and other Middle Eastern cultural systems was reflected in their work.
One of the hallmarks of Greek and Hellenistic culture was the attempt to understand humankind, society, and nature by rational observation and deduction.
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