Cold every American as military deployment reached levels never before seen in Harbor, Virginia.
The war to preserve the Union began in 1865.
African Americans pressed the issue of freedom and nurtured it.
While navigating a world without many men of military age, women thrust themselves into critical wartime roles.
The Civil War was a defining event in the history of the United States and the Americans were thrust into it.
The 1860 presidential election was chaotic.
Charleston, South Carolina, was the site of the Democratic Party's meeting in April.
The goal was to get a candidate on the ticket, but the party was deeply divided.
The refusal of the leaders to include a pro-slavery platform resulted in delegates from the south walking out of the convention, preventing Douglas from getting the two-thirds majority needed for a nomination.
The Democrats had two presidential candidates.
The current vice president, John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, was nominated by southerners at the Baltimore convention.
Initially, the Republicans were not unified around a single candi date.
Leading Republican men vied for their party's nomination.
At the May 1860 convention, a consensus was reached that the party's nominee would need to carry all the free states in order to win.
New York Senator William Seward was passed over.
In Pennsylvania and New Jersey, there was a potential obstacle to Seward's pro- immigrant position.
Lincoln rose from a pool of potential candidates and was selected by the delegates on the third ballot.
The electoral landscape was further complicated by the emergence of a fourth candidate, Tennessee's John Bell.
The Constitutional Unionists, made up of former Whigs and some southern Democrats, made it their mission to avoid the threat of secession while doing little else to address the issues tearing the country apart.
The Repub lican Party got a big boost from Abraham Lincoln's nomination.
New Jersey was the only free state Lincoln did not carry.
81.2 percent of the electorate came out to vote, the highest ever for a presidential election.
Lincoln received less than 40 percent of the popular vote, but with the field so split, that percentage yielded 180 electoral votes.
Lincoln's name was not included in the ballots of the Library of the exception of Virginia.
Lincoln's election and the perceived threat to the institution of slavery proved too much for the deep southern states.
South Carolina called for a convention to declare independence.
The South Carolina convention voted unanimously to end their union with the United States on December 20, 1860.
On January 9, 1861, Mississippi adopted their own resolution, followed by Florida on January 10, Alabama on January 11, Georgia on January 19, Louisiana on January 26, and Texas on February 1.
Texas was the only state that put the issue up for a popular vote.
The Confederates adopted a new nationalism.
Slavery was one of the main ideals of Confederate nationalism.
The foundation of the Confederacy rests on the fact that the negro is not equal to the white man.
The election of Lincoln in 1860 showed that the South was overwhelmed.
Slavery was the most common frame of reference for power in the prewar South.
The thought of being reduced to a slave was terrifying to a southern man.
George Washington standing in a Roman toga is one of the emblems of nationalism on the currency.
Christianity was explicitly mentioned in the founding document of the Confederacy.
In every case, the rationale for secession was tied to slavery.
"Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery--the greatest material interest of the world," proclaimed the Mississippi statement of secession.
Some southerners participated in Confederate nationalism.
Unionist southerners were most common in the upcountry where slavery was weakest.
The southerners joined the Union army and worked to defeat the Confederacy, most of whom were slaves.
The effort to try to solve the issue fell on Congress, which included prominent men such as Stephen Douglas, William Seward, Robert Toombs, and John Crittenden.
"Crittenden's Compromise" was a series of Constitutional amendments that guaranteed slavery in southern states and territories, denied the federal government slave trade regulatory power, and offered to compensate owners of fugitive slaves.
The measure was voted down by the Committee of Thirteen and failed in the full Senate vote.
The seven seceding states met in Montgomery, Alabama to organize a new nation.
The capital of Montgomery, Alabama, was established by the delegates after they selected Jefferson Davis of Mississippi as president.
It was not certain if other states of the Upper South would join the Confederacy.
By the early spring of 1861, voters in Virginia, Missouri, and Arkansas had rejected the idea of seceding from the United States.
The acts of loyalty in the Upper South were dependent on a lack of intervention by the federal government.
Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as the 45th president of the United States on March 4, 1861.
He would use force to maintain possession of federal property in states that were not part of the United States.
The federal installation in Charleston, South Carolina was the focus of attention.
Lincoln intended to give the fort some supplies.
The fort was called for to be evacuated by South Carolina.
Major Robert Anderson refused.
Confederate General P. G. T. Beauregard fired on the fort.
The Union troops were evacuated after Anderson surrendered.
On April 13, 1861, Major Robert Anderson accepted the offer from General Beauregard to leave Fort Sumter after thirty hours, according to the telegraph.
The Civil War began after the Union surrendered Fort Sumter.
In the wake of the rebellion, President Lincoln called for volunteers to serve three months.
The American Civil War started.
Several Upper South states joined the Confederacy because of the assault on Fort Sumter.
Eleven states gave up their loyalty to the United States.
The promotion of any and all interests that reinforced the objective of the new Confederate nation was predicated on the institution of slavery.
The defense of slavery was couched as a preservation of states' rights by some southerners.
In order to protect slavery, the Confederate constitution left less power to the states than the U.S. Constitution.
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