In 1913, the new Democratic president, Woodrow Wilson, attacked dol ar diplomacy as a form of economic imperialism.
Wilson dispatched American military forces to Latin America more often than any other president.
Wilson argued that the United States should intervene to keep Europe from destabilizing weak governments in the Western Hemisphere.
Wilson sent Marines to establish a military government after the Dominican Republic refused to sign a treaty that would have given the United States a special role in governing the island nation.
Wilson was in Haiti next to the Dominican Republic.
Mexico was a bigger problem for Wilson.
In 1910, Mexicans revolted against the dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz, who had given foreign corporations a free rein in developing the nation's economy.
The victorious rebels began squabbling after occupying Mexico City.
The leader of the rebel lion, Francisco Madero, was overthrown by his chief of staff, General Victo riano Huerta, who assumed power in early 1913 and then had Madero and thirty other political opponents murdered.
Huerta established a dictatorship despite the criticism.
Wilson ordered the U.S. warships to stop shipments of weapons to the new government.
Rival revolutionary Mexican armies began trying to oust Huerta, the largest of which was led by Francisco Pancho Vil a.
Nine American sailors were arrested in Mexico on April 9, 1914, while trying to buy supplies.
The incident might have ended, but the imperious U.S. admiral demanded that the Mex icans fire a gun.
On April 21, 1914, Wilson sent U.S. troops to Veracruz after they refused.
At least 300 Mexicans were killed or wounded when the city was ravaged by 19 American deaths.
The Americans ruled for seven months.
They left after Huerta was overthrown.
South of the border continued.
In 1916, Pancho Vil launched raids into Texas and New Mexico in an attempt to get the U.S. to intervene.
Three miles across the border, on March 9, he and his men attacked Columbus.
Seven teen Americans were killed when 500 revolutionaries burned the town.
General John J. Pershing was sent to Mexico by Wilson.
The army of Vil a's was chased through the mountains of northern Mexico.
The American troops were ordered home in 1917.
Wilson was distracted by war in Europe and paid little attention.
White Americans believed that their advanced indus trial development proved their racial superiority, and that the United States was just implementing the theory of survival of the fittest.
American evangelical Protestants believed they had a duty to Christianize and lift people around the world.
Business leaders hoped to extend America's reach to exploit vast Asian markets.
The effort to acquire Pacific ports was started by the Alaska Purchase.
American planters in the King dom of Hawaii developed a thriving sugar industry using Asian laborers, which increased Hawaii's commercial connections to the United States.
Pres ident William McKinley agreed to annex the islands in 1898.
Many Americans supported the demand for indepen dence during the Spanish colonial rule.
The war lasted 114 days.
Cuba became independent and the United States annexed Puerto Rico after the Treaty of Paris ended the war.
Commodore George Dewey's Pacific naval fleet defeated the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay in the Philippine Islands.
There was a war in the Philippines when Filipinos revolted against American rule.
President McKinley announced that the United States would annex the Philippines.
Congress set up a government in the Philippines and Puerto Rico after the imperialists won the debate.
The War of 1898 saw the United States annex Hawaii, Guam, Wake Island, and some of the Samoa Islands.
The United States' new role as a world power was confirmed by Theodore Roosevelt's imperialist foreign policy.
He helped negotiate the treaty that ended the Japanese War, seized control of the Panama Canal, and sent the navy's fleet of new battleships around the world as a symbol of American might.
Roosevelt's pattern of intervening in the internal affairs of other nations was continued by William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson.
Wilson went to Mexico with American troops twice because of the instability of the Mexican government.
The presence of soldiers from the U.S. deepened the resentment of Latin America.
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Women of all ages and social classes were attracted to the parades organized by women's suffragists.
The emergence of Theodore Roosevelt as a national leader coincides with the beginning of an extraordinary period of social activism and political innovation during which compelling public issues forced profound changes in the role of government and presidential leadership.
Millions of middle- class progressives believed that America was going through a crisis of democracy because of the industrial revolution.
Widespread inner- city poverty, children laboring in unregulated mines and factories, and low pay, required bold action by churches, charitable organizations, experts, and individuals-- and an expanded role for governments.
There was continuing evidence of fraudulent conduct by elected officials.
The widening gap between rich and poor has become a major issue.
Walter Weyl, a progressive economist, insisted that "we shall not advance far in working out our American ideals without striking hard at."
Food, water, housing, education, sanitation, transportation, and medical care were not kept up with the rate of urban growth during the Progressive Era 1890-1920.
Progressives attacked the problems of political corruption, unregulated industrialization, and unplanned urbanization between 1890 and 1920.
They wanted to control the power of corporations that dominated the economy and corrupted U.S. political life.
Progressives were not revolutionaries.
Liberalism in the twenti eth century referred to those who believed that governments should have more power to regulate businesses and ensure the welfare of the people.
They wanted to regulate and reform capi talism.
Christian moralists felt that politics had become a contest between good and evil, honesty and corruption.
They all agreed that governments must become more active in addressing the problems created by rapid urban and industrial growth.
Progressivism was supported by elements of both major political parties, not just a single movement with a common agenda.
Populism's grassroots appeal centered on farming regions in the South and Midwest, but progressivism was a national movement.
It was popular in rural areas but also in large cities.
Men and women, Democrats, Republicans, Populists, and socialists, labor unionists and business executives, teachers, engineers, editors, and professors, social workers, doctors, ministers, and journalists were all progressive activists.
Significant social reforms and government regulations of businesses were led by their combined efforts.
There were flaws, inconsistencies, and hypocrisies in progressivism.
Progressives' perspective was limited by prejudice and snobbery.
For example, the goals of upper class white progressives rarely included racial equality.
They assumed that the forces shaping modern society were too complicated for the "igno rant" mass to understand and that they would not improve.
Progressives began to attack corrupt political bosses and irresponsible corporate barons in the last quarter of the 19th century.
They wanted a more efficient government and better living and working conditions for the laboring poor.
They believed that the goals could only be achieved by expanding the scope of the governments.
The spirit of reform was sparked by the economic depression of the 1890s.
Almost a quarter of the adults in the workforce lost their jobs during the depression.
The United States had the highest per capita income in the world in 1900, but it also had some of the highest concentrations of poverty.
10 million people were living in poverty in the US in 1900.
The effects of the depression caused many upper- middle class urban reformers to organize efforts to help those in need and keep them from becoming social revolutionaries.
Progressivism had a thread of populism.
Reforms pushed by Populists were implemented by progressives despite the fact that William Bryan's loss in the 1896 presidential campaign ended the Populist party as a serious political force.
The Mugwumps were reformers who fought the patronage system and insisted that government jobs be awarded on the basis of merit.
The good- government movement expanded to address persistent urban issues such as crime, lack of access to electricity, clean water and municipal sewer, mass transit, and gar bage collection.
The radical wing of pro gressivism was supported by the Socialist Party of America.
Socialists focused on improving working conditions and closing the income gap between rich and poor through progressive taxation.
Most progressives were capitalist reformers.
They preferred a new, regulated capitalism that was soft ened by humanitarianism.
Progressivism depended on the press to inform the public about political and social problems.
New York City's lower East Side is where the muckrakers got their immigrants.
muckrakers gave journalism a new political role by exposing political corruption and writing about it.
Roosevelt used muckrak ers to drum up support for his policies, invited them to the White House, and used their popularity to help shape public opinion.
Lincoln Steffens, Ray Stannard Baker, and Ida Tarbell led the way in promoting reforms.
Baker focused on railroad abuses while Steffens focused on political corruption.
After Rockefeller destroyed her father's small oil business, Ida Tarbel spent years investigating and writing about the unethical and illegal ways Rockefeller built his giant oil trust.
The heart of progressivism was muckraking.
Progressivism would never have achieved widespread popularity without the muckrak ers.
An author, teacher, and pioneer of investigative journalism is benefiting from "Government by the United States".
The idea that society had an ethical obligation to help its most vulnerable members was one of the streams of progressivism.
Rugged individualism may have been the path to wealth, they argued, but "Christian socialism" offered hope for unity among all classes.
Social solidarity was the solution to economic tensions.
The progressive movement formed a new phase of Christian spiritual revival, an energetic form of public outreach focused not so much on individual conversion and salvation as on social reform.
Many churches and synagogues began emphasizing community service during the last quarter of the 19th century.
Key contri butions were made to the movement by new organizations.
The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) and a similar group for women, the YWCA, both entered the United States from England in the 1850s.
The Salvation Army came to the US a year later.
The YMCA and YWCA combined religious evangelism with social ser vices and fitness training in community centers, which were separate by race and gender.
The YMCA/YWCA centers were intended to provide low cost housing and exercise in a "safe Christian environment" for young men and women from rural areas or foreign countries.
Simi lar facilities were provided in cities with large Jewish populations.
soup kitchens were offered by the Salvation Army to feed the poor and day nurseries for the children of working mothers.
Protestants and Catholics argued that Christianity had become too closely associated with the upper and middle classes.
The poor and disabled should not be helped.
Helping the poor was an essential part of the Christian faith.
He was the first religious leader to support the rights of workers to form unions.
He condemned discrimination against immigrants.
The new era in which churches engaged with the problems created by a rapidly urbanizing and industrializing society was launched by Gladden's efforts.
He reached out to the working poor who lived in substandard housing, lacked the legal right to form unions, and had no insurance for accidents.
Walter Rauschenbusch, a German- born Baptist minister, was the greatest champion of the social gospel.
He said that the commitment to social justice must be linked with personal salvation.
Christianity was intended to be a "revolutionary" faith and churches must embrace the social aims of Jesus.
His message was well received by Theodore Roosevelt and many others.
Those who volunteered in settlement houses were among the most visible soldiers.
Hull House was a dilapidated redbrick mansion that was converted into a settlement house.
Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr, two college-educated women from Illinois, organized a progressive reform community to address the needs of the unskilled working poor.
Hull House had 50,000 working poor in its first year.
320,000 was the annual number by 1940.
Hull House also sponsored health clinics, lectures, music lessons, art studios, men's clubs, an employ ment bureau, job training, a gymnasium, a coffeehouse, a savings bank, and a public bath.
All residents were treated the same.
Most of the settle ment houses in the United States were in the Northeast and Midwest by the early twentieth century.
Settlement house leaders realized that their work was like bailing out the ocean with a spoon.
The versity School of Law was a staff by the end of the century thanks to the efforts of Jane Addams.
The researcher joined the settlement house movement.
Kelley organized tenement tours for state legislators and inspired new city regulations.
Jane Addams focused on improving public health and food safety as her influence grew in Chicago.
She wanted better street lighting and police protection in poor neighborhoods.
The number of employed women increased from 2.6 million to 7.8 million.
The suffragist movement grew as college educated women became more involved in the world of work and wages.
The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments limited voting rights to men only.
They were campaigning for new laws that would make it easier for abused wives to get divorces.
Other suffragists said that pursuing multiple issues hurt their cause.
Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone formed the American Woman Suffrage Association.
It was based in Boston and focused on voting rights.
The National American Woman Suf Frage Association was formed in 1890.
The first state to give full voting rights to women was the Wyoming Territory.
The first successes of the suffragist movement were in the territories and states west of the Mississippi River.
In 1915, San Francisco suffragists delivered a petition with more than half a million signatures to Congress in favor of a constitutional amendment.
They were warmly received by other suffragists like those in New Jersey.