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Apush Period 4 Hyperdoc .docx Period 4 1800-1848 Hyperdoc Key Concept 4.1: The United States began to develop a modern democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and change their society and institutions to match them. Key Concept 4.2: Innovations in technology, agriculture, and commerce powerfully accelerated the American economy, precipitating profound changes to U.S. society and to national and regional identities. Key Concept 4.3: The U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade and expanding its national borders shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives. Introduction Period 4 1800-1848 Watch the Gilder Lehrman Video as an introduction to Period 4 https://vimeo.com/109622089 Topic 4.1 Contextualizing Period 4 Why is the year 1800 a turning point? Because this was a time period in which America made reforms and modified it into the country we knew today from the 13 colonies. How has the country changed between 1754 and 1800? It has expanded westward, new ideologies such as abolitionist emerged, and the industry changes creating distinct divisions within each region. How has the country remained the same between 1754 and 1800? It has remained the same in that it continued to treat slaves and natives harshly and still have white superiority. Topic 4.2 The Rise of Political Parties and the Era of Jefferson Directions: Watch Crash Course US History #10 Thomas Jefferson & His Democracy https://youtu.be/_3Ox6vGteek and use your textbook to complete the questions below. 1. Who are the candidates in the Election of 1800? The candidates were John Adams and Thomas Jefferson 2. Who is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court? John Marshal was the Chief Justice. 3. Why is Marbury v. Madison so important? It gave the Supreme Court the power of Judicial review. 4. What do Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans believe about the Constitution? It should be followed as strictly as possible to limit the power of the federal government. 5. Describe the Louisiana Purchase. Napoleon sold the land to Jefferson because he needed money from the Haitian Revolution. This doubled the size of the US and Jefferson wanted to buy it for trade in the Port of New Orleans. 6. What is the problem with the Louisiana Purchase (if you’re Jefferson)? It isn’t stated in the constitution that the president has the power to purchase land. 7. Why did Jefferson purchase the Louisiana Territory (according to the video)? He wanted more land so that every white man could own land to farm which would ensure Americans remained independent. 8. How did Jefferson’s policies expand the role of the President? He did things such as buy land or impose the embargo act which haven’t been done before which expanded the role of the president. Topic 4.3 Politics and Regional Interests Directions: Read the attached article on Politics and Regional Interests from Khan Academy Period 4: 1800-1848 | AP®︎/College US History 1. What were the differences between the North and West versus the South? The North and West favored taxes banking and internal improvements but Southerners opposed them. 2. What were the 3 big political questions that dominated politics in the US at this point in time? Should there be a national bank, should there be protective tariffs on American industry, and should the federal government reign supreme? 3. What were some of the weaknesses in the organization of the United States that were exposed by the War of 1812? There was no national bank to raise money and there was no means of transportation to move men and supplies. 4. What was the American System? It was a program for internal improvements to jumpstart the US economy. It has 3 parts: New national bank, protective tariff, and roads and canals. 5. What was the Era of Good Feelings? A time of single-party rule for Republicans revealed sectional tensions. 6. Which politicians dominated each region -- South? West? North? John C Calhoun supported the south, Henry clay represented the West, and John Quincy Adam and Daniel Webster represented the North. 7. What was the controversy over Missouri? Whether Missouri would enter the Union as a slave state or not. 8. Who came up with the Missouri Compromise? Henry Clay came up with it. 9. What did it say? It established a line along the 36’30 north line latitude where above this line would be anti-slave states and below would be slave states. It admitted Missouri as a slave state while Maine was an anti-slave state. 10. What is nullification? South Carolina intended to nullify the protective tariffs which resulted in the Nullification Crisis which also ended in a military conflict. However, Clay negotiated a new tariff which avoided the conflict. Topic 4.4 America on the World Stage Directions: Watch The War of 1812 - Crash Course US History #11 and complete the questions below. 1. Define impressment. It was when American soldiers were kidnapped and imprisoned or forced to work in British servitude. 2. Who was the most famous War Hawk? Henry Clay was the most famous. 3. What was another reason for the War of 1812? Americans wanted to rule over Canada. 4. Who are the biggest losers of the war? The native Americans were the biggest losers. 5. Which region didn’t want to go to war? Northern New York did not want to go to war. 6. What was the most notable battle of the war? The Battle of New Orleans was the most notable which ended in British defeat but the war had ended 2 weeks ago. 7. What was the impact on Andrew Jackson? This success in the Battle of New Orleans jumpstarted his career. 8. What treaty ended the war? The treaty of Ghent ended the war. 9. What did the War bring an end to? It brought an end to the federalist party. 10. What was the impact of the War of 1812? It gave the US the idea of nationalism because they felt like they won the war and it harmed the native populations. It also have Canada a sense of unity. Directions: Watch the video below on The Monroe Doctrine https://youtu.be/Woh4gwIFpic and complete the questions below. 1. When was the Monroe Doctrine given? It was given in 1823. 2. What was his message to Europe? His message was to European powers telling them to stay away from America and not colonize. 3. What is the role of the United States at this point? The United States was not a powerful country yet. 4. What was the response when the US made this declaration? Nobody paid much attention to it. 5. Where did the Monroe Doctrine come from? After the Napoleonic wars ended the monarchs were reinstated. Many colonists were going to revolution for democracy and if they won it would open trade with America which was why they didn’t want European power’s interference. 6. Who is the Secretary of State? It was John Quincy Adams. 7. No more colonization was specifically pointed at which country? It was pointed at Russia. 8. No interference is aimed at which countries? It was aimed at the monarchs of European countries. 9. What was the message of the Monroe Doctrine in terms of Latin America? The message was appreciated in Latin America because it supported their independence. 10. How was the Monroe Doctrine a statement of isolationism? It states that foreign countries (Europe) should not interfere with American policies. Directions: Use your notes and the videos you have watched to complete the graphic organizer below. FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND TREATIES FOREIGN POLICY YEAR OUTCOME Louisiana Purchase 1803 It doubled the area of the US and enhanced westward expansion. It gave the president power to buy land and encouraged agrarian lifestyles. Embargo Act 1807 Devastated the US economy and decreased American exports. The French and British did not even notice it. It was a fail and backfired. Non-Intercourse Act 1809 It maintained the embargo only against the French and Britain but did not ban trade with other European countries. It bettered the US economy. Treaty of Ghent 1814 It ended the War of 1812 and restored relations between the US and Britain. It also restored the boundaries of the 2 countries. Rush-Bagot Agreement 1818 It was a treaty that limited the naval arms in the Great Lakes. It provided large demilitarization of the lakes. Adams-Onis Treaty 1819 It made the boundary between the US and New Spain that gave west Florida to the US and it promoted US nationalism. Monroe Doctrine 1823 Warned European countries from intervention in America and warned them against colonizing. It helped remove European influence from America. Topic 4.5 Market Revolution: Industrialization Directions: Watch the Crash Course US History #12 Video on the Market Revolution and answer the guiding questions below. https://youtu.be/RNftCCwAol0 1. When did the Market Revolution happen? It happened in the first half of the nineteenth century. 2. What changed during this period? It moved away from agriculture to provide goods for sale. 3. What enabled this economic shift? New technology in transportation and communications-enabled this shift. 4. What largely financed the new roads? It was financed by tolls. 5. What was even more important than new roads? Canals and steamboats/ Railroads were more important. 6. What was completed in 1825? The 363 miles long Erie Canal. 7. What was the most important innovation of the time? The most important innovation was factories. 8. What was required to build the roads, canals, railroads, etc…? It all required massive upfront capital investments. 9. How did the Market Revolution change the way we think of leisure time? Leisure time was determined by standardized time rather than the sunset/sunrise. 10. Who were the primary workers in the new textile factories? Young, unmarried farm women were primarily workers. Topic 4.6 Market Revolution: Society and Culture Directions: Watch the Khan Academy Video The Market Revolution: Society and Culture https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-us-history/period-4/apush-market-revolution-society-and-culture-lesson/v/the-market-revolu tion-part-3?modal=1 and complete the guiding questions below. 1. What are the 3 major effects of the Market Revolution? The 3 effects were changes in the labor system, an entry into the international market system, and the 2nd great Awakening. 2. What comes with the Market Revolution in terms of labor? There is a lot of factory labor and people start working for wages. 3. How is that a change over time? Previously you were your own boos, but now you had to report to someone. This made the system stricter. 4. What is the impact of interchangeable parts on artisans? Fewer artisans make goods from start to finish. 5. What is the impact of this process on labor? People do only one part of creating a good rather than making the entire product. It contributes to deskilling. 6. How did the War of 1812 help create the American market system? The US stopped exports to England which made them manufacture goods within the country. 7. How do the laws of supply and demand impact the society of the South? The demand for cotton increased the slave labor in the south so that they can meet those demands. 8. How did the Market Revolution change the country socially and economically? The Market Revolution changed the daily lives of people through working in factories with standardized times and economically by making it an international supplier. Topic 4.7 Expanding Democracy Directions: Read the attached article on Expanding Democracy in the early nineteenth century and answer the guiding questions.https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-us-history/period-4/apush-expanding-democracy-lesson/a/expanding-democracy 1. Which group saw voting rights expand in the early nineteenth century? White men saw voting rights expand. 2. Which states had eliminated the property requirements by the Civil War? All but one state had eliminated property requirements. 3. What did the expansion of voting rights become known as? It was known as Jacksonian Democracy. 4. What percentage of the eligible voters turned out for the presidential election in 1840? 79% of eligible voters turned out for the presidential election. 5. What state who previously allowed women to vote limited voting rights to men only in 1807? New Jersey allowed women to vote. 6. What was the “Era of Good Feelings”? A period after the War of 1812, when the federalist party dies down and the government was under a single party under the Democratic republicans. 7. Whose supporters formed a new political party-- the Democratic Party? Andrew Jacksons’ supporters organized the Democratic Party. 8. The opposition of Andrew Jackson would form themselves into another new political party, what was it called? It was called the Whigs. 9. What did Whigs support? Thye favored an active national government and promoted the American System to benefit American commerce: A National bank, protective tariff, internal improvements. 10. What issue broke the Whig Party apart? This issue of slavery broke them apart. Directions: Watch the two videos John Marshall: The Man Who Made the Supreme Court https://youtu.be/aqyoI7lmy-0 and The Marshall Court https://youtu.be/T8XAyUoddN8. Complete using the videos, your notes, and https://www.oyez.org/ MARSHALL COURT JUDICIAL RULINGS COURT CASE 1. Marbury v. Madison 2. Dartmouth College Case YEAR OUTCOME / RESOLUTION 1803 In favor of Marbury because madisons refusal to deliver commissions was considered illegal in the court’s eyes. Gave the court a right to Judicial Review. 1819 The government attempted to convert the college into a state university even though it was private. The court decision (5-1) was for the Trustee of Dartmouth College. 3. McCulloch v. Maryland 4. Gibbons v. Ogden 5. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 6. Worcester v. Georgia 1819 Congress had the right to incorporate a bank and Maryland could not impose taxes on instruments of the national government. 1824 The US congress was the only body that could interfere with issues regarding interstate congress. No states had the right to intervene. 1831 The Supreme court ruled that they did not have jurisdiction to hear Cherokee nation because it was considered a foreign state. 1832 The State of Georgia wins and sentenced Worcester to 4 years of imprisonment, however, states did not have the power to impose laws on Native American lands. Topic 4.8 Jackson and Federal Power Directions: Watch the Crash Course US History #14 video The Age of Jackson https://youtu.be/beN4qE-e5O8 and complete the guiding questions below. 1. Who were the only people who could vote in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century? Most voters were white male landowners. 2. Who was elected President in 1828? Andrew Jackson was elected. 3. What were the 3 parts of the American system? The 3 parts were internal improvements, tariffs to protect industry, and a national bank that would replace the 1st National Bank. 4. Who were the main supporters of the American system? The main supporters were John C. Calhoun and Henry Clay. 5. What did the Missouri Compromise do? It admitted Missouri as a slave state and main as a nonslave state. It stated that any state above the 36 30 line would be admitted into the Union as a nonslave state and anything below that would be a slave state. 6. Who “invented” the Democratic Party? Van Buren invented the party. 7. What made these presidents appealing to the masses? They had nicknames to appeal to the people. 8. What did John Quincy Adams accuse Jackson of during the campaign of 1828? They argued that having a literate president was not a bad thing and accused him of being a murder. 9. Who were these new Democrats? Jacksons’ party was the new democrats and lower to middle-class men. 10. What political party arose in response to the Democratic Party? The Whigs arouse in response. 11. How did South Carolina respond to the Tariff of 1828? They tried to nullify it. 12. What was the Force Act? It authorized Jackson to use the army and navy to force them to pay taxes. 13. What did the Indian Removal Act of 1830 do? It forced many Native American tribes to relocate westward. 14. How did the Supreme Court respond? The Supreme court said that this violated their treaties with the federal government and that the tribes had a right to their lands. 15. How did Andrew Jackson change the banking system? He vetoed the renewal of the 2nd national bank and gave money to the local banks instead. 16. What was the spoils system? It was when the president would replace government officials with loyal supporters. 17. How did Andrew Jackson expand federal power? He enhanced the power of veto. 18. Why is the Age of Jackson important? It made America more democratic and also extended the executive power. Topic 4.9 The Development of an American Culture Directions: Watch the Khan Academy Video -- The Development of an American Culture https://youtu.be/-zr1NBxTgG8 and answer the questions below. 1. Where did most of the cultural contributions come from in the early years of our nation? It came from Europe. 2. Who is the author of The Raven? The author is Edgar Allan Poe. 3. How is Poe’s writing different from the writing of the Enlightenment? It focused more on individual experience and emotions rather than scientific reasoning. 4. When is the foundation of American art and literature? 1800-1848 was when the foundation was placed. 5. American styles of architecture became known as what style? It was known as the federal style. 6. What prominent architecture style began in the 1820s? It was the Greek Revival style. 7. What movement was started by a group of painters in upstate New York? The Hudson River School started. 8. The Oxbow was painted by ___Thomas Cole_________. 9. Who are some of the most well-known fiction writers who portrayed unique aspects of American society? Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper were fiction writers. 10. What was Transcendentalism? It was the idea that the truth could be found in nature. 11. Who is the most famous Transcendentalists? Henry David Thoreau was famous. 12. Who is considered the founder of the Transcendentalists? Ralph Waldo Emerson was considered the founder. 13. Who were some of the women transcendentalists? Margaret Fuller and Emily Dickinson were women transcendentalists. Topic 4.10 The Second Great Awakening Directions: Watch the Khan Academy Video -- The Second Great Awakening -- origins and major ideas https://youtu.be/wnaLjLOAwkc and answer the questions below. 1. What was the Second Great Awakening? It was a period of religious revival in the US. 2. When was the Second Great Awakening? It was during 1790-1850. 3. What is the central aspect of the Second Great Awakening? The central aspect was camp meetings. 4. Where did it largely take place? It was in the western part of the US. 5. What were the camp meetings characterized by? They were characterized by a really emotional response from people. 6. Who is one of the most famous preachers of the era? The most famous preacher was Lyman Beecher. 7. What was his concern? That society today was rapidly becoming too secular, taking a rational approach to religion. 8. Who was the other famous preacher of the era? He was Charles Grandison Finney. 9. What did Beecher and Finney disagree on? Finney approved of women preaching in public which Beecher disagreed with. 10. Second Great Awakening rejects what idea? It rejects the Puritainas idea that your destiny is already written so your actions do not matter in whether you’re going to heaven. 11. What impact do these ideas have on religion? It democratizes religion by saying anyone has a chance of salvation. 12. Who did it attract? It attracted lots of poor people. Topic 4.11 An Age of Reform Directions: Watch the Crash Course US History #15 https://youtu.be/t62fUZJvjOs and complete the questions below. 1. What was the most famous Utopian community which wanted to separate themselves from the new world of industrialization? They were the Shakers. 2. What was a fatal flaw of the Shakers (in terms of keeping the group going)? They could only increase their numbers by recruitment which made it difficult to have many members. 3. Another big group to come out of this religious fervor was that of the Latter Day Saints or what common name for this group? It was Mormons. 4. Why does Green believe that Brook Farm failed? It failed because writers did not like farming. 5. Most of the reform movements of this time period were linked to religion and this was referred to as what? It was referred to as the 2nd Great Awakening. 6. These religious awakenings were all denominations of what branch of Christianity? It was dominated by protestant christianity. 7. A desire to perfect themselves and their communities led to what reform movement? It led to the temperance movement. 8. What groups of people are going to have a real issue with this reform movement? Catholic issues had an issue with the reform. 9. Public school houses that were led by the ideas of Horace Mann were called what? They were called common schools. 10. What was the biggest reform movement of the 19th Century? It was the abolition movement. 11. What was the idea of the Colonizationists? Their idea was to ship all slaves back to Africa. 12. What is the name of the colony that was waiting? The name was Liberia. 13. William Lloyd Garrison was so anti-slavery; he burned what in protest that it was a pact with the devil? He burned the constitution. 14. What did the radical abolitionists rename the statehouse bell in Philadelphia? They renamed it the liberty bell. 15. What law/rule prohibited members of Congress from reading or calling for the emancipation of slaves? The Gag rule prohibited them from calling the emancipation of slaves. Topic 4.12 African Americans in the Early Republic Topic 4.13 The Society of the South in the Early Republic Directions: Watch the videos and answer the questions below. The Importance of Frederick Douglass https://vimeo.com/28424123 1. How does David Blight describe Frederick Douglass? He describes him as a symbolic and important leader. He was an advisor and an educated speaker. 2. How did Douglass escape from slavery? He disguised himself as a sailor and escaped by a boat. 3. Within a couple of years, what was he beginning to establish? He begins to establish a public persona by speaking at local antislavery societies. 4. Who “discovered” Frederick Douglass and invited him to speak at an abolitionist convention on Nantucket Island? He was discovered by William Loyd Garrison. 5. What did he then go on to do? He became an orator and spoke to people in the northern states about slavery. 6. What is the best slave narrative published before the Civil War? It was called the Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass. 7. How did he establish his fame? He established his fame as an orator and a crafter of the reform of slavery. The South and the Institution of Slavery- Read the articles and watch the video linked below and complete the questions which follow. The Cotton Kingdom: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-us-history/period-4/apush-the-society-of-the-south-in-the-early-republic-le sson/a/the-cotton-kingdom?modal=1 The Society of the South in the Early Republic https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-us-history/period-4/apush-the-society-of-the-south-in-the-early-republic-le sson/a/the-society-of-the-south-in-the-early-republic?modal=1 Video at the link below: https://youtu.be/ltIbYH8lTQA 1. What ends in 1808? The slave trade ends. 2. What is the Fugitive Slave Act? It said that Southerners can get back runaway slaves. 3. Why does the North abolish slavery? There were economic reasons because slavery wasn’t needed much in the north. 4. What is the basis of the South’s economy? The basis is cash crops such as cotton. 5. What invention makes the economy profitable? The cotton gin was made by Eli Whitney. 6. What did the demand for land also increase? There was a huge increase in slavery. 7. Who is demanding southern cotton? Northern industries and England are demanding cotton. 8. What does the Antebellum South look like? There are many areas throughout all southern states where you see slavery. It has an agrarian economy. 9. What percentage of the population owned slaves? 25% of the population owned states. 10. Who controlled the government and southern politics? Wealthy white slave-owning, southern males controlled politics. 11. Who makes up the majority of Southern society? African American slaves made up most of society. 12. How does the South contrast with the North? North is more industrialized and had more immigrations. 13. What do the African American communities in the North look like at this time? There were some free slaves but there were racial tensions and competition. 14. What is life like for the free black population in the South? There were many restrictions on their daily lives. 15. How was slavery brought to the attention of many Northerners? Uncle Toms Cabin gave the northern states awareness. 16. What was African American culture like that emerged? It emerged as a mix of African American and American cultures. 17. Who are the earliest opponents to slavery? The earliest opponents were Quakers. 18. What is the goal of the American Anti-Slavery Society? It called for the immediate uncompensated emancipation of slaves. 19. What former slaves advocate for abolitionism? Federick Douglass and Sojourner Truth were slaves. 20. What political party formed in 1840? The Liberty Party was formed. 21. What actions did Southerners take to defend slavery? They proposed the Gag Resolution banned anti-slavery campaigns and there were bans on the education of slaves. 22. What united many of the poor whites and planter elite? The fight against the abolition of slavery united them. 23. What arguments were made for slavery as a “positive good”? They argued that slaves were being treated like family and that it was like the laborers in northern factories. 24. Who was the most prominent pro-slavery writer AND what did he argue? George Fitzhugh was a prominent writer and he made an argument that slavery is a good thing and that the criticism of slavery is not right because slaves are treated like family. Topic 4.14 Causation in Period 4 Watch the Video Developing an American Identity https://youtu.be/VQ-xQ9B-0ss and complete the graphic organizer below. Explain the extent to which politics, economics, and foreign policy promoted the development of American identity from 1800 to 1848. Politics Economics Foreign Policy ● ● ● The development of political parties. Voting for white men unified the nation Missouri compromise and nullification divided the country. ● ● ● Market revolution Tariffs divided the nation Industry VS Agriculture divided the nation. ● ● The War of 1812 unified the nation Westward expansion Skill Practice Document 1: John Marshall, Marbury v. Madison, 1803 “And if this court is not authorized to issue a writ of mandamus… it must be because the law is unconstitutional and therefore absolutely incapable of conferring the authority… “Certainly, all those who have framed written constitutions contemplate them as forming the fundamental and paramount law… and consequently… an act of the legislature repugnant to the constitution is void… “If, then, the courts are to regard the Constitution, and the Constitution is superior to any ordinary act of the legislature, the Constitution, and not such ordinary act must govern the case to which they both apply. “The judicial power of the United States is extended to all cases arising under the Constitution… “Thus, the particular phraseology of the Constitution… confirms and strengthens the principle… that a law repugnant to the Constitution is void and that courts, as well as other departments, are bound by that instrument.” Historical Context: Author’s Point of View: Purpose: This was the case of Marbury VS MAdiosn that was important because it gave the Supreme court the right to Judicial review. This is written in the point of view of a Supreme court Judge who has the right to examine the cases and announce if things are constitutional or not. The purpose of this document is to declare that any law passed by the legislation is beneath the constitution and can be subject to a trial in court. Audience: The audience is the 2 opposing sides of the case which are Marbury and madison. Document 2: US Supreme Court, McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 “We admit, as all must admit, that the powers of the Government are limited, and that its limits are not to be transcended. But we think the sound construction of the Constitution must allow to the national legislature that discretion with respect to the means by which the powers it confers are to be carried into execution which will enable that body to perform the high duties assigned to it in the manner most beneficial to the people. Let the end be legitimate, let it be within the scope of the Constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that end, which are not prohibited, but consist with the letter and spirit of the Constitution, are Constitutional.” Historical Context: Author’s Point of View: Purpose: Audience: This is the court case of Maryland VS McCulloh in which Maryland imposed taxes on the national bank. This is from the point of view of a Supreme court judge who is deciding if this is constitutional or not. This announces the decision that the state does not have the right to interfere with national instruments. The audience is the state of Maryland who started this case against McCulloch for tax. Document 3: Missouri Compromise, 1820 “SEC 8: And be it further enacted. That in all that territory ceded by France to the United States, under the name of Louisiana, which lies north of thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes north latitude, not included within the limits of the state, contemplated by this act, slavery and involuntary servitude, otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof the parties shall have been duly convicted, shall be, and is hereby, forever prohibited. Provided always, That any person escaping into the same, from whom labour or service is lawfully claimed, in any state or territory of the United States, such fugitive may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labour or service as aforesaid.” Historical Context: This is the Missouri Compromise that states d that the states above the 3630 line were nonslave states and below are slave states. Author’s Point of View: This is from the point of view of the US government who passed this law in order to avoid conflict amongst the states. Purpose: The purpose of this is to declare what states are slaves states and what slaves are non slave states Audience: The Audience is the people of America because it tells them which states are slave states and which are not. Document 4: James Monroe, The Monroe Doctrine, 1823 “With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the governments who have declared their independence and maintained it, and whose independence we have acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them, or controlling… by any European power in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States… “Our policy in regard to Europe… which is not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its powers… but in regard to those continents [the Americas], circumstances are eminently and conspicuously different. It is impossible that the allied powers should extend their political system to any portion of either continent without endangering our peace and happiness; nor can anyone believe that our southern brethren if left to themselves, would adopt it of their own accord.” Historical Context: This was written to warn European powers from interfering in the western hemisphere. Author’s Point of View: Purpose: Audience: This is from the point of view of the US who wants to avoid any conflicts with European powers in the new world. The purpose of this is to warn European powers from colonizing or interfering with the western hemisphere. The Audience is European countries because they have had a history of colonizing the new world. Document 5: Henry Clay, In Defense of the American System, 1832 “The transformation of the condition of the country from gloom and distress to brightness and prosperity, has been manly the work of the American legislation, fostering American industry, instead of allowing it to be controlled by foreign legislation, cherishing foreign industry. The foes of the American System, in 1824, with great boldness and confidence, predicted, first, the ruin of the public revenue and the creation of a necessity to resort to direct taxation; The gentleman from South Carolina (General Hayne), I believe, thought that the tariff of 1824 would operate a reduction of revenue to the large amount of eight million of dollars; secondly, the destruction of our navigation; thirdly, the desolation of commercial cities; and fourthly, the augmentation of the price of objects of consumption, and further decline in that of the articles of our exports. Every prediction which they made has failed, utterly failed.” Historical Context: The American system was a system to improve American infrastructure, impose taxes and have a national bank. Author’s Point of View: This is from the point of view of Henry Clay who supports the American system. Purpose: Audience: The purpose is to advocate for the American system=m and express its usefulness to the country. The audience is the men of the country who make these policies who need t be convinced about the American system. Document 6: President Andrew Jackson, Message vetoing the Bank, July 10, 1832 “It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their selfish purposes. Distinctions in society will always exist under every just government… In the full enjoyment of the gifts of heaven and the fruits of superior industry, economy, and virgue, every man is equally entitled to protection by law. “But when the laws undertake to add to these natural and just advantages artificial distinctions… to make the rich richer… and the humble members of society – the farmers, mechanics, and laborers - … have a right to complain of the injustices of their government. “There are no necessary evils in government… If it would confine itself to equal protection… the rich and the poor, it would be an unqualified blessing. In the act before me there seems to be a wide and unnecessary departure from these just principles.” Historical Context: Andrew Jackson vetoed the National bank because he thought it would harm the poor or middle class. Author’s Point of View: The point of view is from a president who believes the national bank would harm the country. Document 7: Unknown Artist, “King Andrew the First,” 1833 Purpose: The purpose is to veto the national bank and explain the reasons for doing so. Audience: The Audience is the American citizens to explain to them that the bank will help the rich and harm the poor. Historical Context: This is a picture of President Jackson dressed up as a king. Author’s Point of View: This is from the point of view of a person who thinks highly of Jackson. Purpose: The purpose of this is to show Jackson as a great president and highlight some of his main policies. Audience: The Audience is the American citizens who support Jackson as a president.