Suppose you put a compass on one side of a wooden table and place a pole of Earth's magnetic S pole on the other side, as shown in the picture.
The compass needle interaction between magnets depends on the orientation of the Earth's magnetic pole.
Magnets and electrical charged objects attract and repel when they are close to the compass.
The foam bal has to be near the compass to be attracted to the magnet.
The electric field shows how charged objects interact.
Magnetic poles aren't electric charges.
We can use bar magnets instead of compasses.
The north-south axis of the magnet is aligned with the filings on top of it.
The interaction between two magnets can be explained in the following way.
Mag net B creates its own magnetic field that exerts a force on magnet A.
We found that stationary objects do not charge.
Without current in the circuit, the needles point toward a lightbulb in a circuit as shown.
The orientation of the compasses point is affected by the current in the wire.
The bulb is on if you close the switch.
The compass orientations are reversed in experiment 2.
The effect of this current on the compasses would be represented by circles in the opposite direction.
An electric current can produce a magnetic field.
With your thumb pointing in the direction of the current, imagine grasping the wire with your right hand.
The magnetic field lines are connected to a battery.
We place a compass close to the solenoid to check the answer.
Section 17.8 will discuss electromagnets further.
The wire does not move if you reverse the current.
A magnetic field exerts on a wire.
The two right-hand rules should not be confused.
The thumb points hand rule describes the magnetic force that is exerted by a known in the direction of a magnetic field on a wire.
If a current-carrying straight wire produces a magnetic field, the field should exert a force on a second current-carrying straight wire placed nearby.
The force on the first wire's current should be caused by the magnetic field produced by the second wire.
The forces that these wires exert on each other should point in opposite directions.
A field is produced by strip.
There is a sign that points to the left.
A strip D is produced at a point out of the page.
A points to the right.
The strips should bend toward each other.
The rents in the strips are different from our predictions.
Two wires exert force on each other and can be predicted using right-hand rules.
The same method can be used to predict what will happen to the two currents.
The north pole of the left coil attracts the south pole of the right coil.
The unit of electric current is apparent from this definition.
Unless the currents are very large, the magnetic forces they exert on each other are difficult to detect.
If the magnetic force that one 1.0 m long wire exerts on the other is 2.0 107 N, the currents are defined as 1.0 A.
The springs are 1.0 m away.
There is a wire surrounding it.
Knowing the spring constant of the springs and the mass of the wire can help us figure out the magnitude of the magnetic force on different lengths of wires.
Pick the paral el that goes to Earth's surface.
The clothesline is moving in a positive direction.
The clothes and line have a mass.
The fingers can be solved in the direction of the magnetic field.
This is a serious problem.
There is a 10-A current through the wire.
The wire is near the equator.
The magnetic force on the wire is zero.
The magnetic force does not depend on the direction of motion of the objects.
Different forces have different directions.
The coil has a clockwise Torque caused by the magnetic forces on sides 1 and 3.
The coil is moving.
The magnetic field can stretch the coil but not cause any Torque.
The direction of the current is reversed and the direction of the magnetic field is the same.
The current is reversed by the commutator ring.
The first to de coil each half turn of the coil was Faraday.
The magnetic field is scribe by the Torque.
He didn't have a formal education but used com in the same direction.
The magnitude of this Torque depends on how far from the loop's rotation axis the magnetic forces are exerted.
The surface of the loop or coil has a normal vector.
We can use it.
You want to measure the current through this coil.
The magnetic field exerts forces on the current through the coil that result in a magnetic Torque on the coil.
If we attach springs to the coil's turning sides, the 17.4 Magnetic force on a single moving charged particle exerts Torques that oppose the magnetic Torque.
An os cilloscope has an electron beam.
The magnetic field exerts a force on a wire.
The collective motion of a huge number of electrical and charged particles causes the current through a wire.
It is reasonable to conclude that the magnetic field exerts a force on each electron.
It exerts a force on other charged particles.
Earth is bombarded from the Sun and distant stars.
The green spot magnetic force protects us from the harmful particles.
The negative terminal of the power source is where the anode is located.
The potential difference between the hot cathode and the anode causes the electrons to accelerate toward the anode, through the hole in the anode, and onto a screen.
The material on the screen glows green when hit by electrons.
We should be able to use the right-hand rule for the magnetic force to predict the direction of the magnetic field if it exerts a force on individual electrons similar to the force it exerts on an electric current in a wire.
The direction that positively charged particles move is how the rule was formulated.
The magnetic force should be in the opposite direction to the one given by the right-hand rule.
Positively charged particles should move upward while negatively charged electrons should move downward according to the right-hand rule for the magnetic force.
The electrons should move upward if we verse the direction of the magnetic field.
The outcome is consistent with the prediction when the experiment is performed.
This result supports the idea that the mag netic force exerted by the magnetic field on individual charged objects is sim ilar to the one it exerts on currents.
There is a relationship between the magnitude of the magnetic force exerted by the magnetic field on an individual charged particle.
Particles are moving in a wire.
The magnetic force on a charged particle is determined by the right-hand rule.
The palms face in 2.
The thumb should be pointed in the direction of the magnetic forces.
Magnetic force is represented by the lettered dots in the figure.
There is a possibility that a protons enters Earth's tion to a problem.
There is a magnetic field far above the surface.
The point of entry is 10-5 T2.
We know how to determine the force that a magnetic field exerts on a moving object.
The force is always the same as the particle's speed.
This is a characteristic of circular motion.
The magnetic field exerts a force that is parallel to the motion and leads to circular motion.
The direction of the particle's speed has changed and it now points downward.
The application of the magnetic field is important.
The particles pass through a person's head every minute.
These particles can cause genetic muta tions, which can lead to cancer and other unpleasant effects.
Our bodies can repair most of the damage.
Without the protection provided by Earth, thousands of particles would pass through our heads.
Earth's magnetic field protects it from harmful Cosmic rays.
Determine the path of a Cosmic Ray Proton flying into Earth's atmosphere above the equator at a speed of about 107m>s.
Take a short distance figure.
There is a force diagram for the protons.
It doesn't depend on the speed of the protons.
The motion of a field high above Earth's surface.
The magnetic field won't affect the motion of the protons.
The tesla T is the magnetic field of Earth.
Life on Earth is protected by the path of particles above the surface.
The Particles entering the atmosphere are slightly less than the magnetic shield.
Cosmic radiation is present on Earth's surface, but higher levels of Earth's magnetic field expose them to it.
The exposure causes the Auroras.
The particles collide with the molecule in the atmosphere.
Excess energy is reflected as light when the electrons recombine.
The Sun's hot ionized gas with its magnetic field can cause solar flares.
The Auroras become more intense when the mag netic activity on the Sun is high.
Sometimes the Auroras can be seen far away from the magnetic pole regions.
High-power transmission lines cause magnetic fields due to the magnetic field.
To answer this question, we need to place a test object of magnetic field at different locations and investigate the effects of the field on this object.
Since we can measure all three quantities, it's possible to determine the constant of proportionality that will turn it into an equation.
Traditionally, this constant is written as m0>2p, where m0 is 4p.
When using an equation.
The magnetic permeability of iron is 1000 times greater than a coil.
Predicting the magnetic properties of individual atoms and objects made from them is possible despite the model being outdated.
The magnetic properties of materials could be explained by these dipole moments.
In the early 20th-century model of the cross section, the electron was thought to move in the direction of the hydrogen atom.
The point circle is 10 m and the single electron passes it once every 1.5 s.
The figure shows 10-19 C along with the known information.
This is less than the magnetic moment of a loop.
The previous example is similar to a single loop.
The elec- rials are not strong magnets.
Their dipole moments would cancel each other if this is correct.
The electric current is zero.
Skil s are needed to solve these problems.
The general procedure is described on the left side of the skil box and there is a solution to the example on the right side.
A horizontal metal wire of mass 5.0 g and length 0.20 m is supported by two very light conducting threads.
The wire hangs in a 49-mT magnetic field, which points to the page and away from it.
The force that each thread can exert on the wire is 39 mN.
A sketch of the situation is shown along with the known information and problem.
We don't know the direction of the current.
The downward force is exerted by the wire.
Finding the force exerted by the external field on an object is a problem.
A force diagram is needed for the wire.
If needed, the axis is pointing.
The process to determine the unknown 2139 includes the appropriate values.
Evaluate the results--units, magnitude, and limiting cases--to make sure they are not unreasonable.
Its mass is 10-31 kilo.
We will neglect their contributions if we make a sketch of the situation.
The circuit has a clockwise current.
The 2 wire is given by Eq.
The case of a dis can be analyzed using the loop rule and the Ohm's law.
The equation points to the side of the beam.
Assume that the electrons hit the screen every second and that they move at a speed of 107m>s.
Radiation therapy is used to fight cancer.
The machine uses a magnetic field to bend the elec trons into a target and then produces X-rays.
The X-ray beam will be shaped by the shape of the tumor.
The magnetic field producing high bends the electron beam inside the IMRT.
The beam of the X-ray is shaped to destroy cancer.
If the elec trons are moving at 2 *108 m>s, the mass of the elec trons is 9 * 10-31 kg, and the radius of the turn is 5 cm, then the estimate is that the elec trons are moving at 2
The figure depicts the bending process.
The magnitude of the magnetic field is easily attained.
The magnitude of the sum is what determines the eration.
The beam of protons is by the mass of the electron.
electrons are the only force with a nonzero radial component.
The magnetic force would need to be the magnetic field.
The force is 2000 times greater.
We have only considered applications involving the mag netic field and the magnetic forces and Torques it can exert, so far in this chapter.
The measurement of the speed at which blood flows is one of the applications that involve a combination of magnetic and electric phenomena.
We will investigate how our knowledge of magnetic fields helps us determine the ion's mass.
The plates are not charged initially.
The field exerts a magnetic force on the positively charged particles towards the right.
The particles collide with each other and are collected by the plate on the right.
The particles were charged.
The magnetic field points to the left and the negative field points to the right.
There are negative ion on the left wall.
Free electrons and positively charged ion form when the magnetic and into the burning gas.
The negative electrons particles move straight and positive ion accumulate on opposite plates beside the pathway.
The hot moving ionized gas causes the MHD plates to maintain a current through the attached circuit.
Some older coal-fired power plants use MHD generators.
Coal-fired electric power plants have replaced MHD generators with new tech Side view nologies.
Older coal plants can be upgraded with MHD generators.
The charged particles come from the sun.
The magnetic flow meter doesn't have a bearing to wear out and it doesn't have a rotor to get stuck in sand or debris.
Flow rates can be measured by commercial flow meters.
Most fluids are not included in the magnetic flow meter's work.
The fluid flows through a magnetic field.
The potential difference is easily measured, so this is of the arteries is about 1.0 cm.
If you want to know if this is a large diameter irrigation pipe, you need to know the flow rate of water from the artery.
We need to estimate the speed first.
The water passes through the blood using a netic field.
The mass spectrometer is based on this relationship.
The mass spec trometer can be used to determine the mass of particles.
It is possible to determine the relative con centration of atoms of the same chemical element with slightly different mass.
A mass spectrometer can produce ion through a variety of mechanisms.
2 fields are traveling parallel to the field lines.
The ion moves in circular paths.
The method in the exercise below is used to determine the ion mass.
There are many uses for mass spectrometry.
The place where the ion hits a Ions moving at known fore can be used as a way to determine the age of plant and animal.
The force exerted on a single ion is the magnitude.
Materials have different magnetic properties.
Magnets attract objects made from iron, such as paper clips, but do not exert an observable magnetic force on objects made from aluminum, such as soda cans.
The north pole of the magnet is facing the south pole.
The north pole of the magnet is facing Fe below.
Some become Magnetized opposite the direction of the other magnet and some in the same direction as the external magnet.
There are mechanisms behind diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and ferromagnetism.
Under electric current, we have to explain the magnetic properties of materials.
The individual electrons cancel each other in atoms with more than one electron.
The electrons orient themselves in opposite directions when they pair up.
In diamagnetic materials, the magnetic moments produced by individual electrons in the atoms cancel each other, making the total field produced by the atom zero.
The external mag netic field exerts forces on the electrons because they behave like tiny currents.
The moments of the electrons and the intrin sic moments of the electrons are usually canceled in most atoms.
aluminum, so dium, and oxygen are paramagnetic materials.
The atoms are mostly run domly oriented because of the random motion of the particles.
The domains are not straight.
Like in paramagnetic materials, ferromagnetic materials have individual atoms with magnetic moments.
In ferromagnetic materials, the "magnetization" effect is thousands of times stronger.
Each domain may have 1015 to 1016 atoms and occupy less than a millimeter on a side.
Permanent magnets are created when steel nails are placed in magnetic fields.
Each piece of a broken magnet is still a complete magnet because of the alignment of the domains.
The pieces have their domains aligned before they split.
Each piece has its own north and south pole.
An iron bar should be inserted into the solenoid.
This is an object.
Practical applications of permanent magnetization of ferromagnetic materials can be found.
Data is stored on hard disk drives.
Airport metal detectors, transformers, electric motors, loudspeaker, electric generators, and permanent magnets all depend on the magnetization of ferromagnetic materials.
I max eq.
Choose if you want to apply.
A person standing on the ground watches as an electron moves left to right in the plane of the page.
A magnetic field can be produced by using a current-carrying wire.
If you triple the speed of a particle entering a magnetic field.
You don't need to agree with that reasoning.
If the magnetic field doesn't change, it won't.
Pick the units that are fundamental SI units.
The beam of electrons can be seen when the field is increased.
The poles are not marked on the magnet.
A reader can get the same results if you describe what you do.
There are many ways that you could produce a magnetic field.
An electron enters a solenoid at a smal angle relative to the problems in which you would need to use each of them.
A current-carrying wire is placed in a magnetic field.
The mag tion is done in which direction.
Give examples of objects that will not be affected by an electric field.
Give examples of objects that won't be affected by a magnetic field.
A list should be easy.
There is a horseshoe magnet sitting on a mass.
When you turn the current in the circuit on, make sure to say everything you can.
A con reading decreases when you have a lightbulb.