Non-Western peoples have increasingly participated in the changes that originated in Western civilization.
The mentality of modern global civilization has been adversely affected by these drastic changes.
On the other hand, there is a sense of liberation from the traditional limits on the themes and methods of art, as well as irrational codes of behavior and morality.
There is a disturbing awareness of loss of tradition and stability, of individual helplessness against social forces or government and commercial manipulation, of the littleness of humanity compared with the vastness of nature.
Modern global civilization experiences a combination of feelings when reflecting upon itself and the universe: consciousness of freedom, knowledge, and power, and a sense of weakness, perplexity, and fear.
The progress of science and technology has resulted in the sharpening of this double feeling.
Today, humanity is reaching toward ultimate understanding of the universe as a whole and the medium of space and time in which it exists, as well as of the almost infinitely tiny yet unimaginably complex "worlds" that make up both living and non living matter.
Technology has provided safety, comfort, and abundance on a scale that earlier generations would have considered miraculous.
Technology has given the human race the power to enslave and destroy itself, while science has made the human race seem unimportant and unexceptional as part of the universe.
The rise of science has had a strong effect on philosophy and reli gion, which have traditionally guided the human race's thinking about itself and the universe.
"fundamentalist" believers in the monotheistic religions hold to their sacred books as authoritative guides to knowledge about humanity and the universe, and oppose changes in traditional codes of behavior and morals.
Conservatives accept both the universe of science and the one God who exists beyond it and has given humanity a unique place in it, but they can't combine them into a single whole.
Traditional beliefs are seen as no more than myths, while affirming drastic changes in behavior and morality.
The most far-reaching of these changes are the ones that concern sexual behavior and family life.
The balance of status and power between men and women that seemed to arise with the Agricultural Revolution is breaking down, and single motherhood and homosexuality claim acceptance as part of the social order alongside heterosexuality and marriage.
The changes have a double nature.
The tide of industrialization swept millions of women out of homes and families and deposited them in factories and offices.
The protest of the mid-twentieth-century "counterculture" against mass society in the democratic countries led to women's liberation.
The arts have reflected the changing mentality of modern global civilization.
The modern world has been depicted by the most admired artists.
They prefer to view human experience through the lens of their own subjective consciousness, rather than the traditional conventions of telling stories.
Artists have used more traditional methods in order to cry out against the horrors of modern civilization.
The function of art in traditional civilizations is now mostly left to second-rate artists and to mass entertainment.
The progress of science in the 19th century.
In the twentieth century, there was a headlong rush of discovery that left no aspect of nature unexplored.
The distribution of galaxies across the endless reaches of space, the movement of continents across the face of the earth, the ages of prehistoric artifacts and human remains, and the "language" in which bees communicate with each other in the hive--over an amazingly wide range of matters that until recently
Science has become a large scale social undertaking, employing tens of thousands of highly trained people and supported by massive state subsidies, thanks to the lonely activity of a few researchers.
A machine that hurls subatomic particles was built by 14 European nations in 1989 and has become spectacularly huge and complex.
In 1990 and 1993 the United States devoted two space shuttle missions to place the Hubble Space Telescope in the air so that it could be repaired.
The pursuit of scientific knowledge has become one of the most respected human endeavors.
The most prestigious of the ways in which the world honors individuals as benefactors of humanity is the Nobel Prizes.
Literature, economics, and peace are the prizes that are given each year, as are physics, physiology and medicine, and chemistry.
The reason for the high valuation of science is that it has unlocked many secrets of nature.
Politics and warfare, industry and the economy, social life and culture have all been changed by the explosion of scientific knowledge.
The Green Revolution in agriculture, the revolution in politics produced by television, and the atom bomb are just some of the things dealt with in the last three chapters of this book.
Among the countless twentieth-century achievements of science, perhaps the most significant--both as discoveries in themselves and in their consequences for human life and thought--are those that have taken humanity to the outermost edges of the universe.
The twentieth century saw the "discovery of a new cosmos" in the same way that the 16th and 17th century did.
Astronomers have been able to see ever farther into space because of other scientific and technical discoveries.
In the 19th century, spectrum analysis showed that the stars are made of the same elements as the earth, and that they have the ability to "burn" hot.
The aggregation of 200 billion stars in which the sun was already known to be located was discovered by huge new telescopes from about 1900.
The spectrum analysis of the galaxies indicated that they are moving away from one another.
The revolution in western culture apart galaxies are moving at a faster pace than before, thanks to the fundamental discovery made by the American astronomer in the 1920s.
This was proof that the universe must be expanding.
This led to the creation of a scientific theory about the probable origin of the universe.
If the universe has been growing larger over time, then there must have been a time when it was small, and the reason must be that the galaxies are hurtling away from each other.
Confirmation of this theory was provided by a new type of observing device, radio telescopes, which detect radio signals emitted by stars and other objects in space.
The concepts of Albert Einstein's theory of relativity were used to explain the discoveries.
Einstein proposed the large-scale conversion of matter into energy as a way to keep the stars burning for billions of years at a time.
The concept of space and time, matter and energy, being related to one another, allowed the astronomer to imagine how all four could have originally been packed into a tiny point, and then have expanded into a universe that grows without an actual boundary but where space and time curve back on.
This new view of the universe didn't invalidate the view developed by Copernicus and Kepler, Galileo andNewton, as their view had invalidated that of Ptolemy.
It became clear that what the giants had discovered was not the end of the story.
The twentieth-century successors were exploring the full outlines of the awesome structure of mass and energy.
The physicists searched for the inner secrets of the atom as well as the origins of the universe.
The early-twentieth-century discovery that the atom is a tiny structure with its own parts drove this quest forward.
In the course of the twentieth century, atomic physicists were able to answer many of these questions.
Between 1900 and 1930, the theories that helped answer these questions were created.
The "classical" scientific concepts that seem to do well enough for the vast range of "middle-sized" items were what they said.
To make sense of the world of the atom, it was necessary to think of many particles as tiny pieces of matter, and sometimes as tiny packets of energy.
Einstein was one of the major contributors to these new concepts.
It was necessary to define what the world of the atom was and how it could be observed.
The particle is so small that there is no way to observe it without affecting its position or motion.
Einstein was worried that the uncertainty principle would make the internal workings of the atom unknowable.
Physicists had to give up hope of ever looking at an individual atom, as Galileo had done.
Physicists could theorize on the basis of large numbers of atoms so as to predict what the "average atom" would most likely do--rather than as a market research company can never know for certain what brand of breakfast cereal an individual consumer will buy, but given data about many consumers
Even if subatomic particles could not be directly observed inside the atom, they could be knocked out of atoms by powerful beams of rays or streams of other particles, and their paths could be tracked and measured once they had been released in this way.
Atomic physics has become one of the most expensive and spectacular branches of science due to an array of increasingly powerful "atom-smashing" and later "particle-smashing" devices.
Physicists were able to understand how the atom works with the help of concepts and devices.
By the 1930s, it was known that the differences among chemical elements are due to the different numbers of subatomic particles among the atoms that make up the elements; and that radioactivity, electricity, and light are the result of the emission of particles by atoms, the flow of particles among them.
Practical consequences of this theoretical knowledge were far-reaching.
The miniaturization of electronic components was possible because of the understanding of the flow of electrons among atoms in certain types of solid materials.
New atom- and particle-smashing devices revealed ever more subatomic particles that theoretical physicists had to incorporate into the model in order to account for discrepancies in the model.
The structure and behavior of the atomic nucleus was one of the most significant discoveries made in this way.
In 1938, Enrico Fermi broke apart some of the clumps of particles that formed the nucleus of the atom.
The small clumps of particles that formed the nucleus of hydrogen atoms were able to be forced together to create larger nuclei about ten years later.
The discoveries led to the atom and hydrogen bombs.
Nuclear power stations can be used to make use of fusion chain reactions and controlled fission.
Scientists hope to learn how to control fusion reactions so that they can fulfill the dream of cheap, plentiful, and nonpolluting energy.
The picture of particles and forces in the atom has been simplified recently.
Two of the forces at work within the atom, electromagnetism and the "weak interaction" among particles outside the nucleus, were shown to be in fact one and the same force by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam.
In the not too distant future, atomic physicists hope that discoveries such as these will lead to a "Grand Unified Theory," which will show that all the forms of matter and energy in the universe are manifestations of a very few basic particles and perhaps only a single force.
It will mark the end of a stage in the Western quest for rational understanding of the physical "nature of things" that began in ancient Greece more than 2,500 years ago if this is achieved.
Scientists are investigating the basic structure of living organisms and the ways in which they reproduce and grow in order to understand one of the main features of the natural world.
There were many ad vances in this field in the 19th and early 20th century.
Growth and reproduction take place by means of cell division, as was found by biologists.
Cells are formed in the same way as non living matter, with some of the same elements, in 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465 888-282-0465.
The researchers found that they were led to the mysterious substances in the scattered pieces of evidence.
By the 1940s, it was known that the molecule of both consists of extremely long strands built up of four basic units, the order of which continually varies along the strands.
Experiments withbacteria showed that a rough-coated variety could be altered to have a smooth one.
It seemed that the genes could be transferred from one cell to another through the use of DNA.
The double-helix model of the DNA molecule was created by Francis Crick and James D.Watson.
They said that the molecule consists of two strands that are twisted around each other.
In the course of cell division, the two strands break apart so that they can carry each other's genes into a new cell.
As each strand settles down within the newly formed nucleus, it produces a new partner strand by chemical combination with surrounding substances.
When the time comes, these two can separate and transfer their genes to other cells.
As physicists have done with the atom, biologists have been able to build up a full picture of the inner workings of the living cell on the basis of this insight.
The way in which DNA strands sometimes replicate themselves in a slightly different form ofRNA and how the different sequence of genes make up the "genetic code" are all fairly well understood.
The human race has lived in a state of "permanent industrial revolution" since the link between science and technology was forged in the 19th century.
The revolution accelerated in the twentieth century as science unlocked the true powers of the universe.
The rise of high technology was not the result of scientific advancement alone.
To translate "pure" scientific knowledge into usable technology takes scientists and engineers obsessed with technical problems, and corporation executives who want to stake the biggest claim in new and profitable markets.
The United States was the homeland of high technology due to the fact that it had a huge home market for new products, as well as huge resources for investment and a revolution in western culture.
The United States was the leader in the field of computers.
It was advances in the mathematical field of information theory that made computers possible, and discoveries in the "pure" science of Semiconductor physics that made them cheap and small.
Generals and admirals spent the money to jump-start many computer technologies at a time when they seemed too risky and unprofitable for private companies.
The first computer was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense in the 1940s in order to speed up the production of mathematical data needed for heavy artillery, while in the 1950s it invested in computer-controlled machine tools that would accurately make complex parts for state-of-the The engineers and corporation executives moved in once the basic technologies had been proved.
The results were mainframes and desktops, automated factories, the Internet and the World Wide Web.
At the end of the twentieth century, another field of technology had been pulled forward by pure science to the point where it was producing just as spectacular results as computers.
For thousands of years, humans have manipulated living things, such as products that de rive from living things.
In the 70s, an American scientist named Paul Berg was able to cut and recombine strands of DNA in a different order to create new types of genes.
In this way, new strains ofbacteria could be created, with the "hereditary" capacity to produce biological substances useful to humans.
Pure and applied science were hard to distinguish in this new industry.
It was sponsored by civilian bureaucrats eager to get a return on government funding for pure science, and by college presidents who wanted to get a patent for their discoveries.
Early in the twenty-first century, genetic engineering passed an important milestone as computers became more and more popular.
In order for this new industry to reach its full potential, it would be necessary to be able to identify the location of the genes in the DNA molecule of various species.
Genetic engineers were like readers in a library with many stacks, tens of thousands of books, and no catalogue or floor plan without this information.
The catalogue and floor plan were made available to anyone who needed them after the completion of the human "genome-mapping" project.
The onrush of discovery brought humanity to previously unsuspected realm of knowledge, while its technological applications transformed daily life.
Many other fields of thought and culture were affected by the rise of science as the main intellectual enterprise of the human race.
Science was so successful at explaining the material universe that it left a lot of other mysteries.
It seemed that human beings were similar to those that made up plastic and dyestuffs.
Physicists hoped that the interactions of a few grandly simple forces and particles would explain the universe.
The material universe, human consciousness, and religious faith were usually linked into a single whole, but science's success in explaining the first of these things gave the other two a break.
The procedures of science, with its theories that were constantly modified or discarded in the light of new knowledge, and its principles of uncertainty and relativity that explained phenomena in terms of probabilities and the viewpoint of observers, seemed to go against traditional religious and artistic ideals.
Even if the physicists realized their dream of a Grand Unified Theory, the total insight into the material universe that it would provide gave little promise of having much to do with the age-old human quest for "ultimate" or "absolute" reality.
Technology's achievements were double-edged.
On the one hand, technology greatly increased human freedom and power; on the other, it raised the question of whether the universe could live with all this freedom and power.
The surfer's path could be tracked by anyone who had the expertise and equipment to do so, just as the genetic "destiny" of individuals could be tracked.
Technology offered the possibility of an "anthill society" where individ uals were controlled and manipulated, as well as the threat of environmental disaster or nuclear extinction.
It made the individual seem even more impersonal than before, at the mercy of vast impersonal forces in society and the universe.
Science and technology have had a lot to do with different trends in modern culture.
Many writers, artists, and architects have used scientific and technical mastery in their work, while others have abandoned the external world to science and technology, and others have imagined the individual as alone in an indifferent or hostile society.
Some philosophers have tried to mimic the scientific method with its gradual approach to limited truth, while others have developed the idea of the lonely individual.
The idea that science provides the only knowable kind of truth and that there is an absolute spiritual truth beyond the material truth of science has been challenged by many religious thinkers.
The onrush of science affected philosophy.
Einstein's theory of relativity and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle impressed many philosophers.
They agreed that no explanation is possible.
They focused attention on limited intellectual problems, especially the applications of symbolic logic, because they held that nothing significant could be said about being in general.
Our very humanity prevents us from seeing ourselves.
In all times of change and upheaval, inherited beliefs and ways died hard.
The idea of progress is still alive and well in the United States.
By 1919, old-fashioned liberalism in Europe had become discredited and the void was filled by Marxism, fascism, or extreme nationalism.
Some people turned to traditional Christian beliefs.
The crimes and horrors of world wars and revolutions heightened their awareness of "evil" and man's "sinful nature," and their quest for truth beyond the findings of science led them to the centuries-old intellectual system of Christian theology.
The Augustinian teachings were rekindled by certain religious leaders.
There was a call for a resurgence of orthodoxy and ritualism.
John Locke's simplistic view of the mind was the source of the twentieth-century challenge.
The mechanics were completely superseded by 429-430.
Sigmund Freud was the pioneer of modern psychology.
Freud was interested in curing the mental ailments of his patients.
He discovered hidden aspects of the human mind and personality during his clinical work.
Freudian psychology's substance gained acceptance despite his views on female sexuality being amended.
Freud believed that human beings are not rational machines.
The conscious life is a covering of the "real" person.
Under the surface are unconscious and subconscious drives, which include the desire for sex, power, and even death.
Behavior is influenced by responses and attitudes.
The normal person accepts the damage without breaking down, but the neurotic can't.
Traditional morals, religion, and politics were challenged by the Freudian view of the individual.
Rationality and conscious control were supposed to be the basis of all those.
The new view says that the traditions were not geared to psychological reality.
There is an inescapable conflict between personal drives and the social order, and Freud believed that human personality would suffer even under "enlightened" social codes of behavior.
Social dreams can never be fulfilled and the goal of complete individual happiness is a mirage.
The impact of both men was felt the most in the twentieth century.
For he challenged not only the traditional view of human nature but the entire institutional and ideological heritage of the West, it was perhaps wider than Freud's influence.
He allowed his unconscious self to speak without thinking about logical organization.
Some of the images, symbols, and visions in the book have not been fully understood.
He was one of the first to stress the absurdity of human existence, because we are born to try.
All existing systems appeared to be false.
He attacked the bourgeois civilization of the late nineteenth century on science, industrialism, democracy, and Christianity.
He rejected theism, mechanism, and any other idea that would deny human freedom as an untamed individualist.
The reduction of people to narrowly specialized creatures and their subjection to a Christian morality was the most hated thing by him.
He wanted a return to the heroic Greek idea of the "whole man", but only if the current values were overthrown and individuals were allowed to recover their wholeness through disciplined struggle and sacrifice.
There were many unanswered questions as to how these aims could be accomplished.
Soren Kierkegaard was a thinker of different temperament.
The influence of both was felt at the same time as he was born.
They were the progenitors of twentieth-century existentialism.
Though his works were barely read until after the First World War, the meaning of the word "existence" was given by him.
He said existence was a unique attribute of humans.
They have the power to think about the universe and to choose what they believe and how they will act.
They can never be certain about the consequences of their choice.
Hegel believed that the world is rational and that it represents the unfolding of a divine plan.
It is not possible for people to assume that they occupy a specific place in a known scheme of things.
Always unsure of the consequences, one must act from day to day.
They saw that the individual was increasingly depersonalized by the forces of modern society, such as huge economic organizations, mechanization, and the high level of abstraction encountered in most phases of living.
The existentialists wanted to awaken in each person a sense of individuality and the possibility of an "authentic" life.
Through his experience in the French Resistance against the Nazis, he came to believe that personal commitment and action are essential to genuine living.
During the war, he felt this in his daily decision making.
He proved to himself that he can say "no" to overpowering force even in extreme situations.
The force might be an occupying army or the conformist cultures in which most of us live.
The individual's ultimate defense against being swallowed up as a person is the freedom to say no.
The degree of in dividual freedom was modified by Sartre in later years.
The optimistic, rational liberalism of the Enlightenment was contrasted with the idea of limited freedom by Sartre.
It was closer to the "tragic view" of the ancient Greek poets and dramatists, who saw pain and absurdity in the human condition, yet held that one remains responsible for what one is and does within an established order.
A rethinking of Christian doctrine caused the blow to "systems" and "absolutes" in philosophy.
Here, too, there was a pioneer.
Rational proof for the existence of God, promoted by some liberal theologians, was irrelevant according to a deeply committed Christian.
In order to become a Christian, one must make an inward choice: leap into faith.
All other human choices are unimportant to that one.
Without knowing whether it will lead to salvation or damnation, that choice must be made.