The Ballinger- Pinchot controversy widened the divide between the conservative and progressive Republican groups.
Millions of acres of federal lands were opened to commercial development by the secretary of the interior, Richard A. Ballinger.
The president fired Pinchot when he made his pub lic.
Roosevelt lost his reelection because of a feud he had with Taft.
Roosevelt and his son traveled to Africa in 1909 to hunt big- game animals.
Pierpont Morgan hoped that every lion would do its duty and eliminate Roosevelt.
Roosevelt left the White House assuming that the progressive agenda would continue.
Roosevelt's rebuke of Taft was unjust.
Roosevelt had never dared to try and reform tariffs.
Pinchot had been replaced by another person.
Roosevelt's administration had preserved more federal land in eight years than that of the Taft administration, but it also filed twice as many anti- trust suits.
Women and workers had the right to join unions.
Roosevelt promised to change the rules of large corporations to promote social welfare and serve the needs of working people, after explaining that he wanted to go beyond ensuring a Square Deal in which corporations were forced to play by the rules.
Roosevelt called for tighter federal regulation of "arrogant" corporations that often tried to control and corrupt politics, for a federal income tax, and for federal laws regulating child rearing.
"What I have advocated is not wild radicalism," he said.
A cartoon shows Roosevelt charging through the air at a man on a mountaintop.
On February 24, 1912, Roosevelt announced that he would challenge Taft for the Republican presidential nomination.
The war began because Roosevelt had the better weapons and he loved a good fight.
By 1912, a dozen or so states were allowing citizens to vote for the presidential nominee in party primaries instead of following the traditional practice of party leaders choosing the nominee behind closed doors.
Even though he won all but two primaries, his popularity was no match for the authority he had as party leader.
Thirty-six states chose candidates by convention, and the Taft Republicans won all of them.
Taft won easily at the convention.
Roosevelt was angry.
He and his delegates walked out of the convention, along with a few wealthy business executives, after he denounced Taft and his supporters as thieves.
They nominated him as their candidate.
The Bull Moose party is criticized in a 1912 cartoon for being might achieve.
The suffragists pointed out the menacing ego of Roosevelt when Roosevelt closed just a sideshow.
The "Bull Moose" move ment was a political crusade and Roosevelt was its leader, according to a reporter.
Roosevelt's liberalism was revealed by the Progressive party platform.
It supported minimum wage for hourly workers, an eight hour workday, equal voice for women in every phase of party management, and a system of social security insurance to protect people against sickness, unemployment, and disabilities.
Roosevelt said that President Taft was not a progressive because he failed to fight for social justice or against the special interests.
The Democrats were hopeful because of the fight between William Howard Taft and Theodore Roosevelt.
Wilson had been a college professor and president of a university when he became governor in 1910, and he had become a popular speaker promoting progressive political reforms and government regulation of corporations.
Wilson did not work in business or run for political office.
He was a man of books and ideas, with a keen intellect and a first class mind, with an analytical temperament, an inspiring speaking style, and a strong conviction that he knew what was best for the nation.
Wilson's family DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch There was no explanation to him in the Progressive Era 1890-1920.
He was tall and slender and had a long, chis eled face.
He was convinced that he had been selected by God to serve humanity, and he displayed an unbending self-righteousness that would prove to be his undoing as president.
Wilson graduated from Princeton in 1879.
The first president of the University had a degree in history.
He became an expert in constitutional govern ment, served as a popular professor at several colleges, and was the president of Princeton.
Wilson received the support of New Jersey Democrats for the gubernatorial nomination.
He had higher ambitions.
Wilson was destined to preside over America's emergence as the greatest world power, like Roosevelt.
Wilson persuaded the state legislature to adopt an array of progressive reforms to curb the power of party bosses and corporate lobbyists.
Wilson got national attention.
He faced stiff competition for the presidential nomination at the 1912 Democratic con vention.
He won with the support of William Bryan.
The 1912 presidential campaign was very exciting.
The candidates shared a common assumption that modern social problems could only be solved through governmental intervention.
Roosevelt's candidacy almost ended before the formal campaign began.
John Schrank, a deranged man, shot him while he was on his way to deliver a speech in Milwaukee.
The bullet went through Roosevelt's overcoat, a steel eyeglasses case, and fifty- page speech, then fractured a rib before nestling just below his right lung.
Roosevelt refused medical attention and insisted on delivering his speech to 10,000 supporters.
He went to the hospital when he finished.
As the campaign grew, Taft lost ground and gave up.
There are a lot of people who don't like me.
The New Freedom argued that federal intervention should be a last resort.
Roosevelt admired the power and effi ciency of law- abiding corporations, no matter how large, but he was convinced that huge, "heartless" industries needed to be broken up.
Wilson told the chairman of his campaign committee that he didn't owe him anything after learning of his election.
I should be the next United States pres ident.
Wilson would have lost if the Republicans had not divided their votes.
A minority candidate won over a divided opposition.
Eugene V. Debs, the Socialist party candidate, was the surprise of the 1912 election.
The tal, blue- eyed idealist had devoted his career to fighting the "monstrous system of capitalism" on behalf of the working class, first as a labor union official, then as a socialist promoting government ownership of rail roads and the sharing of profits with workers.
Debs promoted socialism that was flexible, Christian and democratic.
He believed in political transformation.
One of his supporters said, "That old man with the burning eyes believes that there can be such a thing as the brotherhood of man."
That's not the funniest part of it.
West Virginia coal miners, Oklahoma sharecroppers, Pacific Northwest lumberjacks, and immigrant workers in New York City were all united by Debs.
The rising tide of socialism was described in 1912 by one newspaper as 1,150 Socialists won election to local and state offices.
The Socialist party, which had 118,000 dues paying members in 1912, was the only real alternative to the stalemated political system in which the two major parties had few real differences.
There was a widespread fear of socialism.
Debs gave fiery speeches in 1912.
Debs received more votes than four years ago.
On March 4, 1913, a huge crowd surrounded the Capitol in Washington, D.C., to watch the inauguration of Woodrow Wilson.
Wilson became a strong president by force of conviction, while Roosevelt was a strong president by force of personality.
Wilson and Roosevelt shared the same belief that national problems needed national solutions.
They set in motion the modern presidency, expanding the scope of the executive branch at the expense of Congress.
Wilson was the first president to speak to the nation over the radio and to host weekly press conferences.
Wilson was the first president with a PhD and he was a passionate speaker.
Wilson was an expert in the processes of govern ment.
He pushed through more new legislation in his first two years than any other president.
Wilson had a fierce and unlovely side according to the president of Harvard University.
The president found it hard to understand people who disagreed with him.
His victory gave Democrats effective national power for the first time since the Civil War and gave southerners a significant national role for the first time since the war.
Five of Wilson's cabinet members were born in the South.
One of the most skilled political operators of all time was House.
The most famous partnership of the twentieth century was developed by him and Wilson.
House was described by the president as his second personality.
He is my own person.
Wilson told House that he thanked God every day for his friend and adviser.
House helped steer Wilson's proposals through a Congress in which southerners held the lion's share of committee chair manships.
The Wilson era's progressive legislation was named after southern Democrats.
Wilson pursued reform, but with greater success.
Oil, nails, and other imported goods were subject to taxes by 1913.
The longest special session in history was held to lower tariffs and consumer prices.
Wilson was the first president since John Adams to address Congress in person.
The bill was easily passed by the House.
Wilson was able to convince Congress to support his approach because he publicly criticized the "industrious" lobby.
The tariffs on imported products were lowered.
The bill created the first income tax that was allowed under the new Sixteenth Amendment, which had a top tax rate of 7 percent on annual income of $500,000 or more.
Most workers don't pay income tax because they make less than $3,000 a year.
The first major banking reform since the Civil War was proposed by the administration after the new tariffs passed.
The nation had been without a central bank since Andrew Jackson killed the Second Bank of the United States.
The money was managed by thousands of local and state banks.
The system was not stable or efficient.
The failure of smaller banks because they would run out of cash was often caused by fearful depositors wanting to withdraw their money.
Five times since 1873, panics had occurred and the primary reason for a new central bank was to prevent them.
In a crisis, the banking system needed a central reserve agency that could distribute emergency cash to stressed banks.
The government must be in charge of any new system.
He wanted a central bank that would benefit the whole economy, not just the big banks.
Each of the twelve regional districts had their own Federal Reserve Bank that member banks owned.
The banks had to be members of the Fed.
The twelve regional Federal Reserve banks were supervised by a central board of directors.
The Federal Reserve System's main purpose was to adjust the nation's currency supply to promote economic growth and ensure the integrity of member banks.
The Federal Reserve was able to lend to banks when they ran out of cash.
In exchange for their loans, member banks received Fed eral Reserve notes from the new regional banks.
The system came to be called "the Fed" because it promoted economic growth and helped preserve the stability of banks during panics.
The Federal Reserve board requires member banks to have a certain percentage of their total deposits in cash at all times.
The system proved to be worth the criticism.
Wilson's presidency was marked by the Federal Reserve Act.
The focus of Wilson's New Freedom program was trust- busting.
The Bureau of Corpora tions was created by Theodore Roosevelt, but giant corporations continued to grow.
Corporate directors were not allowed to serve on the boards of competing companies.
When it found evidence of unfair trade practices, the FTC assumed powers to define them and issue cease and desist orders.
His goal was not to regulate trusts.
Two years after his election, President Wilson announced that he had accomplished his major goals.
Through his effective leadership, he fulfilled his promises to lower the tariffs, create a national banking system, and strengthen the anti- trust laws.
Many progressives were confused by Wilson's victory declaration, as they had long advocated additional social- justice legislation that the president had previously supported.
African Americans resent the racial conservatism of most progressives.
The Federal Reserve Act was the brainchild of Carter Glass, who was an enthusiastic supporter of his state's efforts to make it harder for black people to vote.
Many of the racist attitudes common at the time were shared by Woodrow Wilson.
Wilson courted African American voters, but he rarely consulted with black leaders.
Daniels and other cabinet members had separate offices for federal employees.
He believed that "separate but equal" was the best way to resolve racial tensions.
He was the first president since the Civil War to support discrimination against African Americans.
Wilson was asked by a group of African American leaders how a "progressive" president could adopt such policies.
Wilson was not endorsed by any African American leader when he was campaigning for a second term in 1916.
W. E. B said "You have grievously disappointed us."
Du Bois said something.
Women's suffragists were disappointed in Wilson.
He insisted that the issue of women's voting rights should be left to the states, despite having two daughters who were suffragists.
Some leaders of the suffragist movement revised their tactics because of Wilson's lack of support.
Alice Paul earned a master's degree from the University of Pennsylvania before becoming a social worker.
She joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association to encourage activists to use more aggressive tactics, such as picketing state legislatures, chaining themselves to public buildings, and inciting police.
NAWSA decided that Paul was too militant and expelled her from their ranks.
She and other suffragists often waved orange and purple, which were well- dressed and well-behaved strikes and protests.
Spectators "taunted, spat upon, and roughed up" marchers, while police did little to control the crowds.
Thousands of suffragists would campaign against his reelection if he continued to oppose an amendment providing the vote to women.
He regretted their behavior.
Four years after forming the National Woman's Party, Paul urged suf fragists to picket the White House.
Wilson ordered their arrest after six months of picketing.
Sixty middle class suffragists were jailed.
The women found their voices at their trials.
He was sentenced to seven months in prison.
She went on a hunger strike and prison officials had to force feed her raw eggs through a rubber tube.
Wilson pardoned Paul and the other activists because of the negative press coverage.
By 1916, Wilson's reelection renewed his commitment to progressive activism.
Louis D. Brandeis was nominated by the president to the Supreme Court.
He would be the first Jewish member of the Supreme Court, and he was a renowned defender of unions against big businesses.
Brandeis was dismissed as a muckraker, an emotionalist for his own purposes, by the former president.
The Senate confirmed the appointment.
The first federal legislation to assist farmers was urged by President Wilson.
The Federal Farm Loan Act was enacted in 1916.
Farmers were able to get loans from twelve Federal Land banks for five to forty years at low interest rates.
The dream of federal loans to farmers on the security of their crops stored in warehouses came to fruition when Congress passed the Warehouse Act of 1916.
The Smith- Hughes Act, which funded agricultural and mechanical education in high schools, was one of the things that benefited farmers.
The Fed eral Highways Act of 1916 helped finance new roads in rural areas as well as farmers with newfangled automobiles.
Wilson expressed doubts about the con stitutionality of the Owen Act but eventually signed it.
The Adamson Act of 1916 resulted from a threatened strike by railroad unions demanding an eight- hour day and other concessions.
Wilson asked Congress to approve the Adamson Act, even though he objected to some of the unions' demands.
It required time- and- a- half pay for overtime work beyond eight hours and appointed a commission to study working conditions in the railroad industry.
During the two terms of Wilson's presidency, progressivism reached its peak.
After decades of political upheaval and social reform, progres sivism shattered the notion that government had no role in protecting the public welfare through regulating the economy or improving the American quality of life.
People of good will could make a difference in improving social conditions.
The principle that governments have a responsibility to ensure that Americans are protected from abuse by powerful businesses and corrupt politicians was established by Progressives.
Progressivism faded as a political movement because of international issues.
After the Great War in Europe, the optimism of a few years earlier was gone.
The twentieth century held in store episodes of brutality that would call into question whether progress was even possible anymore.
Middle class idealists of both political parties promoted reform and government regulation to ensure social justice.
Progressives wanted to establish honest and efficient government by limiting the power of local political machines.
College-educated middle- class women formed community centers in poverty- stricken neighbor hoods as the settlement house movement spread through urban America.
More women became involved in social reform efforts and in the workplace as Progressives drew inspiration from the women's suffragist movement.
The efforts of reformers to end political corruption led to many progressive ideas.
Progressives responded to the socialist movement for economic justice for the working class.
The efforts to address abuses of power in American society were fueled by investigative journalists who exposed political and corporate corruption.
Progressives want to stop cor ruption in politics.
The commission system and the city- manager plan were adopted by many cities and counties.
Other progressives focus on legislation and regulatory oversight to control trusts and other forms of monopolies.
The power of the presidency and the federal government was increased during the administrations of Theodore Roosevelt and William H. Taft.
Roosevelt started a campaign to preserve the nation's natural resources.
Wilson was against guaranteeing women's speach in the constitution.
He imposed segregation in federal offices because he believed African Americans were inferior.
You can see what you've learned and learn what you've missed at InQuizitive.
A sailor encourages a young man to play an active role in the Great War in the U.S. Navy recruiting poster in New York City.
America was pro tected from wars fought on Europe by the Atlantic Ocean in the 19th century.
The nation's global isolation ended in the early twentieth century.
The world economy is entwined with U.S. inter ests.
The development of steam- powered ships and submarines meant that foreign navies could directly threaten U.S. security.
The election of Woodrow Wilson in 1912 brought to the White House a self- righteous moralist who wanted to impose his standards on what he saw as deviant nations.
The outbreak of the "Great War" in Europe in 1914 was a crisis for the United States.
The defining event of the early twentieth century was the first world war.
President Wilson provided increasing amounts of food and supplies to Great Britain and France while maintaining America's neutral stance towards the war.
Congress declared war in 1917 after German submarine attacks on U.S. ships.
Almost 5 million men joined the mili tary after America entered the war.
New jobs were created for both men and women as a result of the departure of so many men from civilian life.
In what was called the Great Migration, some 1.6 million mostly rural African Americans moved to cities outside the South to work in defense industries.
African Americans were eager to get away from Jim Crow segregation in the southern states, even though they were also eager to get away from the mass migration.
He refused to change his schedule after learning of death threats.
Wilson had no experience or expertise in international relations before becoming president.
He shifted his attention to foreign affairs when war broke out in Europe in the summer of 1914.
Wilson believed he was being directed by God to help create a new world order based on morality and ideals.
Wilson and William Bryan believed that America had a duty to promote democracy and Christianity around the world.
When the "dreadful conflict" in Europe exploded suddenly in the summer of 1914, it was Wilson's greatest challenge.
Wilson's wife Ellen died on August 6, 1914, after a decline in her health.
Wilson would have a hard time bearing the horrors of the war.
The Great War of 1914 to 1918 involved more nations and caused more destruction than any previous conflict, with 20 million military and civilian deaths and 21 million more wounded.
The Great War would topple monarchs, destroy empires, create new nations, and lead to an even costlier war in 1939.
The Great War was caused by long- simmering national rivalries and ethnic conflicts in Europe, as powerful imperial nations competed for foreign colonies and military supremacy.
The great powers, driven by a lusty sense of hypernationalism, had been preparing for a European war, even though it had not happened in more than forty years.
Germany's determination to have its "place in the sun" at the expense of Great Britain was one of several threats to peace and stability.
Europe will be divided into two armed camps if the participants in these two alliances are attacked.
In 1914, Europe was officially at peace, but most nations had begun compulsory military service.
The situation in Europe is extraordinary according to Colonel Edward M. House, President Wilson's closest adviser.
It is jingoism that is crazy.
There is too much jealousy among the major powers.
The "powder keg of Europe" was the Austro-Hungarian Empire, an unstable collection of eleven nationalities whose leaders were determined to suppress their southern neighbor and long standing enemy, Serbia.
The Serbian nationalists wanted to create "Yugoslavia," a nation that encompassed all ethnic Slavic peoples from throughout the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
The Pan- Slavic movement was supported by Russia.
Germany was a latecomer to nationalism and industrialization, having become a united nation only in 1871.
Its leaders wanted to catch up with Great Britain and France.
By 1910, German steel production had doubled.
Germany built a navy powerful enough to challenge the British on the seas and an army capable of defeating its old enemies, the Russian Empire and France, while creating its own empire in Africa and Asia.