The Roman Empire becomes a Mediterranean superpower that exerts far-reaching political, legal, economic, and cultural influence.
The chief minister of the Qin state, Li Si, urged his king to ignore niceties and seize opportunities.
He could unify the entire world by establishing a truly imperial rule.
He followed the advice.
He asked what the steps were for a mighty empire.
The Han Empire became one of the most successful dynasties in Chinese history.
The first long- lasting Chinese empire was established by the Han, who defeated other regional groups and different from them in terms of political authority, economic activity, and cultural.
Rome emerged victorious in the war and consolidated its power into a huge empire.
The Romans achieved Afro-Eurasia by using violent force on a scale never before seen in territorial kingdoms to exercise their power over neighboring parts of the globe.
The result was a state of huge size, aston states as clients, often demanding tribute in return for stable and unified.
Living in the Roman Empire.
Pliny the Elder, a man of middle rank, wrote about the unity of the imperial state in the 70s, after the Romans and the Han took imperial expansion to the next level.
All they wanted to do was incorporate them into their realm.
The boundless greatness of a peace that joined conquered neighbors and rivals into their under one benevolent emperor was one of the benefits that flowed from its extensive reach.
The reasons that rulers gave became members of empires, not just the vanquished.
Those who justify their rulership.
The existence of these two vast imperial states meant that many non-Christians for Rome and many non- Chinese for the Han Empire.
The boundaries of both bear fell directly under the control of China or Rome, which made them resemble those of the countless millions of people living under empires at their peak.
These states have their own umbrellas.
They were qualified for public office because of their military power.
It also meant that people from all walks of life shared the same belief system that the military elites had.
They modernized tax collecting to support armies.
The laws and codes for their subjects were written in a manner of decorum and dress for each social level.
The idea that the state should support the arts and education was promoted as a small-scale model of idea.
Those who lived beyond the realm of the tecture and a learned society were considered uncivilized.
Rome's empire changed over time as it was at either end of Afro-Eurasia or the other.
As we see these empires as models for world history, Roman meant being a citizen of the city of Rome, for they did Latin, and eating not emerge as the inevitable consequences of destiny.
They are dressed like Latin-speaking people.
By the late second, the concept of citizenship had expanded to include not only citizens of the city but also anyone who enjoyed benefits that distant neighbors did.
They had formal membership in the larger territorial state that they had to deliver on their promises.
Romans were building.
This bigger view was no longer true after these conquerings.
Being the Great's now.
They were a subject of the Roman emperors and were able to outlive them.
The Han dynasty owed a lot to its predecessor, the Qin state.
Han created the political, social, economic, and cultural patterns of development, different types of public servants, and foundations that would characterize imperial China thereafter.
The citizen, the soldier, and the military governor were all part of the Roman Empire.
It lasted only fourteen years, but the Chinese treated imperial culture as an ideal descended from the past that had to be mimicked in the pres.
Rome began as a collectively ruled city-state integrated much of China and pursued a pragmatic road to domination of its world as if and economic innovations.
The Qin were one of many creating something new.
During the Warring States period, the Romans achieved a political in many ways because of the process of trial and error, which was the most warlike of them.
The system of one-man rule by emperors was enabled.
The Chinese were not fond of violence, but they did like to prevail over rivals.
They idealized a decision to expand from the base of their ancestors.
Roman expansion and valley into the Sichuan region was characterized by a process of continual experimentation, its home territory and remarkable for rich mineral resources innovation.
The leaders of the new empires used diverse populations to unite huge landmasses and extraor.
Both China and Rome merchant class and Silk Road exchange were growth economies.
In China, free peasants worked rice bowl of China, despite the fact that the region was turned into a primarily agrarian based.
At the age of fourteen, King Zheng ascended the land, while huge enslaved populations worked the fields of the throne, and the Qin were part of the Roman Empire.
The scale of the Han prepared to defeat the remaining Warring States and unify a dynasty was unprecedented for East Asia.
Roughly two-thirds of modern China was covered by a land survey.
One of the most violent lations of over 12 million households in Chinese history took place between 230 and 221 bce, according to the imperial government.
Able ministers and generals helped with public works.
The Han conscripted army, composed mainly of peasant farmers, covered 3 million square miles in China proper and another 1 million square miles in central Asia as a system of taxation that funded all-out war.
As those of Han China, I have accomplished this feat.
After the Han dynasty mythical emperors of great antiquity, Zheng went back to China's attempt to become the Second Rome.
Both empires raised life to a new and Zhou, to exalt his dynasty over that of the Zhou and the level of bureaucratic and military complexity and offered rulers of the Warring States, all of whom had called themselves common identity on a grander scale than ever before.
He forced the vision that would never be lost to consolidate his power.
The Han dynasty consolidated much of East Asia into a large empire.
Each commandery had a military and a civilian.
The First August tary emperor was the Han.
He made sure that civilian governors didn't serve in their home areas so that they wouldn't be able to build up power for themselves.
The new system ensured that all able-bodied males would serve in the army and work on public projects, as well as huge palaces in the capital.
The social order that had been lacking was imposed by these practices.
The standard weights and measures as well as a standard currency were established by the emperor.
The boundaries of China were extended in the northeast to the Korean Peninsula, in the south to Vietnam, and in the west to central Asia.
The Warring States principles of Legalism were subscribed to by Li Si.
The philosophy valued written law codes, administrative regulations, and inflexible punishments more highly than ethics, which the Confucians emphasized.
Li Si was determined to bring order to a turbulent world and made sure that strict laws and regulations, as well as harsh punishments, were applied to everyone regardless of rank or wealth.
Beheading, cutting off a person's nose or foot, tattooing, shaving off a person's beard or hair, hard labor, and loss of office and rank were some of the punishments.
Communications systems were improved by the Qin.
The Qin effort to standardize writing was as important as the structed roads.
The Banning regional variant in written characters were accommodated in the lanes of these immense thoroughfares.
Scribes and ministers were required to use the small script seal, a revised form of writing that resembled to check erosion, in order to keep their embank thick.
Vehicles were required to have a standard pictographic forms carved on ancient Shang oracle bones so that all wheels fit in the same dirt ruts.
Still, see Chapter 3.
The Han dynasty's complicated style of bureaucratic writing known as "clerical along the hundreds of miles from local towns and villages to the script" made it nearly unbearable for travelers to breathe.
After a few days of travel, merchants would use this standard type of writing to make them feel bad if their goods were damaged.
Problems with the new imperial unity were eliminated by Standardization.
All books in private possession were ordered to be burned in 213 bce, except for technical works of medicine, divination, and agriculture.
The court prosecuted teachers who used banned books, including Confucian works that could be used to criticize the regime.
State officials now control education and learning.
The policy to enhance state power was devised by Li Si, the minister of the first Qin emperor.
Traditions of learning that differed from the orthodoxy were targets for elimination.
The Five Classics stressed moral rectitude, personal character, and political responsibility while holding office, which was the most serious threat to Qin power.
Li thought that the texts were an insult to imperial power and that they should be destroyed and scholars executed for defending them.
They lead attention are equally guilty as the empire disintegrated in earlier times.
The decree was issued after thirty and no one was capable of unifying it.
Those who have not destroyed their books rose to power if the license is allowed.
The power of the state will decline above and will be branded and sent to build the discourse they all praised the past in.
It would be a great wall.
Books not to be destroyed will make the present less interesting.
Everyone cherished his favorite school in the imperial archives, save the mem culture and arboriculture, according to your servant.
People wishing of learning 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 The officials instituted by the authorities should be taken by all persons in the pursuit of learning.
According to Li Si, how would these independent schools join with ernors and have them burn classic texts to help each other criticize the codes of laws?
Those who dare to talk to the emperor keep their instructions.
What types of books were in his school?
There is a marketplace at home.
They don't like it in their hearts but they criticize it in the street because they want to keep it out of the past.
They want a reputation and want to be put to death.
The trade which relied on slave labor for many large-scale tasks in city goods yielded more revenue for the imperial government than the Greek city-states and the Roman Empire.
The Han dynasty only had a small portion of their crops in taxes, making it difficult for peasant families to expand and defend their borders.
After the Warring States became an empire, the agricultural surpluses fueled long-distance commerce and started looking beyond to the north and west.
China's cities were turned into dynamic regional market centers by a class of merchants.
Weapons, metals, horses, and foodstuff were sold by merchants west of China.
The relationship between nomadic peoples and the settled Chinese was tenuous until 215 bce, when the Qin Empire pushed north into the middle of the Yellow River basin and opened the region up for settlement.
The "Great Wall" was constructed more than a millennium later and was preceded by roads built into these areas.
30,000 people were settled in the lands of Inner Eurasia in the 21st century.
The Qin dynasty collapsed quickly despite its military power.
Its rule weighed heavily on taxpayers, and its constant warfare consumed huge tax revenues and huge numbers of laborers.
Desperate conscripted workers crossbow.
The Western Han dynasty was formed after the civil war.
Before he was exiled to the state of Han by a powerful adversary, an unheralded commoner and former policeman named Liu Bang declared himself prince of his home area of Pei.
The first Han dynasty emperor was proclaimed in 202 bce.
Emphasizing his peasant origins, Liu showed his disdain for intellectuals by urinating into the hat of a court scholar.
He realized that good manners would serve power better.
50,000 crossbowmen who brandished mass-produced weapons were busy justifying Liu made from bronze and iron.
With his victory, foot Bang was able to depict his predecessors as cruel dynasts soldiers and mounted archers who extended Han imperial lands.
The first part of the Han Dynastic cycle, later known as the portrayed the Qin as evil, yet at the same time they adopted the Western (or Former) Han dynasty.
We can see from the prosperity and expansion of empire.
He was known as the "Martial the Han" until the Confucian moralization of legal judgments took shape in the Han dynasty.
Emperor Wu never led his military units in battle.
He used a strict penal code to eliminate the pow formative empire.
The armies grew with the officials who got in his way.
Confucians wanted to explain the fall of a military power that had unified China just fourteen years before.
The dynasty's collapse was due to its mean-spirited policies.
The loss of the mandate of heaven was blamed on the immorality of the Qin penal code and the first Qin emperor's policies.
The dynasty would have survived if the Qin had followed Confucian teachings and ritual guidelines.
The six genesr enjoyed by his descendants unified the land and secured themselves ations before him.
Brandishing his many generations to come.
Even after the death of the First, he swallowed Emperor, his reputation continued to sway and cause its ancestral temples to topple up the domain of the two Zhou dynas the people.
Chen She was the ruler who died at the hands of others.
He grew up in a hut with a laughingstock in the eyes of everyone.
The ruler lacked humaneness and was a mere hired field and rightness, because preserving power and spreading his might through the hand and conscript of mediocre differed from seizing power.
The ways of talent was abolished by him.
He couldn't equal the worth of ancient kings and couldn't match the wealth of the writings of the Hundred Schools, yet he tried to keep the people ignorant.
The whole world came to them to help you to imagine the peasant ening his people.
It was at important passes that it was placed.
The First Qin was pacified by the empire.
Out of the experience of the Han, the Chinese produced a to introduce land reforms and took power from 9 to 23 ce.
He lost control to a group of families who were vying for power.
The Han dynasty was restored to power.
The Han recon power legitimated their authority by claiming to be the heirs of previous grand dynasts and by moving the capital slightly east.
Under Han rule, agriculture, commerce, and industry flourished in East Asia.
Roman or the Persian rose and fell.
The Chinese empire did not fall because it relied on political institutions to keep it going.
The imperial continuity established by the Han was maintained through ideological support and control of economic assets.
They differed in their use of civil bureaucracy, which lasted more than 2,000 years.
Han Dynasty China and Imperial Rome ensured the efficient collection of taxes.
The local administrative staff was inadequate to the tasks facing them because of the large number of people under their jurisdiction.
The scholar-official ideal was promoted by government schools.
It had 30,000 students and faculty by the second century ce, more than any Roman training school.
Students studied the classics, but Han scholars were also inventors.
Rational diagnoses of the body's functions and the role of wind and temperature in diseases were made by them.
They invented the magnetic compass and developed high-quality paper, which replaced silk, wood, and bamboo strips as media for communicating laws, ideas, rituals, and technical knowledge.
Local elites encouraged their sons to study Confucianism.
The Confucian classics were planted at the heart of the imperial state and society because of this practice.
Legal materials from the tomb of the emperor.
The new Han legal thinking was concerned with conforming to the ideals of the Confucianized officials who were appointed to serve the Han Empire.
The scholar-gentry class shared a determination to impose order on the Chinese population.
The Han had clearly prescribed rewards and punishments for groups who helped overthrow the Qin.
The central and local governments had 23,500 people working for them.
The Han's enduring power came from that structure.
Confucian males were required to register, pay taxes and serve in the military.
The people's welfare was considered to be regional administration.
Powerful princes were removed first.
The empire consisted of thirteen provinces that the officials all depend on the people for their mandate, according to the scholar-official.
The work of administering each mandate of heaven was shared by a civilian official and a comman.
The people of the Greek city chose their own leaders, far exceeding those of the Roman Empire.
Many lands were covered by the commanderies to revolt against rulers who did not promote general well-being.
The application of punishments against criminals was brutal.
The scholars said that the accused's motive or social status did not matter.
Under the Han emperor Wu, Confucian philosophy was used to humanize the Han penal code, so that jurists could consider the litigant's social status and personal motives behind criminal behavior.
When true justice was the goal, the spirit of the law took precedence over the letter.
On the side of the road, he picked up a caterpillar with little ones, but wasp the child B and raised him as his own son.
What is the use of murder?
B was concealed by the contents of the accusation A.
Why did the Han Tung Chung-shu pass a judgment exonerating a stepfather?
He raised his son even though he was his own son.
A steady stream of tax was used to tutor the princes.
Revenues and labor for military forces and public works should be embraced.
The Han rulers established an empire based on Han court and also drew revenues from state-owned imperial lands, the mandate of heaven, and house the officials to counterbalance the emperor's auto.
The emperor's will was paramount and he established state monopolies in salt.
stiff penalties for counterfeiting were imposed by him.
The ability of the Han leaders to win the support of diverse social groups was part of their genius.
Their ability to organize daily life, create a stable social order, and promote eco Wuzhu coin was the basis for their success.
The Confucian view of the ruler as the moral and cosmological foundation of government and laws was added to the Legalist defense of an autocratic state by early Han dynasty officials.
The philosopher offered a new theory to legitimize the Han dynasty and criticized the mismanagement of the government.
Under the guidance of Confucian officials, the imperial system would nourish the people and promote upright officials who would maintain the Han dynasty's mandate to govern, rather than ruling through fear and intimidation.
The founda pillow is the leader of the people.
The ruler will resemble fathers and the state will not endanger him.
He will be at risk now that he is administering.
He will not rely on favors to state, nothing is more important for trans no one destroys him, he will naturally demonstrate his love for his people and reverence for destroyed.
"Spontaneous severe measures to prompt them to act" is what it is called.
Heaven, Earth, and human are hidden in a stone vault or barricaded in a state and are the foundation of all living things.
One who is an enlightened master exerts themselves to revere the foundation and nourish them.
The ruler believes in such things with filial and brotherly love.
Do not leave from it.
Heaven nurtures them with food and reason, and Earth nurtures them with clothing and the three foundations.
Without filial and brotherly love, none can serve the foundation of Heaven.
Without rites and music, plants grain opens new lands to provide words about the lack of food and clothing of Han officials, and serves the view of the proper relationship.
People become the foundation of Earth if all three are lost.
The emperor made his sons and rulers not be able to people with education.
The ruler's city has a foundation vision of Han political culture inner and outer walls, but it does not possess rites and music.
Han cities would consume if laid out in an orderly grid.
The court palaces became forbidden in the inner cities.
The markets were off-limits to everyone except the imperial and govern.
Rich families were transported in carriages.
They paid a lot for the privilege of announcing the palaces and down wide avenues, and tombs of rulers rather than the sites of mass entertainment, keeping a horse required as much grain as a family of six like the Colosseum in Rome.
Ban Zhao enjoyed being a teacher and manager in the family while her husband worked away from home.
Women who were commoners were less likely to lead protected lives.
Some people who worked in the fields joined troupes of entertainers to perform at open markets.
In the winter, the rich wore furs and everyone else wore woolens and ferret skins, but Silk was abundant and available to all classes.
The rich wore leather or silk shoes.
Wine and meat were not only reserved for festivals, but also for well-to-do people.
Those who could afford it pushed and shoved to buy their cooked meat in the markets.
The dinner tables of the wealthy were adorned with vessels made of silver or golden handles.
Exotic animals, tiger fights, and foreign dancing girls were included in the entertainment for those who could afford it.
Rich families kept their own orchestras, complete with bells and drums, and live music was popular at private homes.
During the Zhou dynasty, there were only public ritual occasions.
Screens were used for privacy.
New people in daily life in Han China did not do physical labor.
Confucians and Daoists believed in luxuries for the elite.
Scholar-officials were thought of as gender by Confucians.
Wealthy families worked hard for the ruler to enhance a moral economy in which richly carved crossbeams and rafters were displayed.
They wouldn't make a lot of money by greedy merchants.
The first century of Han rule perpetuated drapes and screens in the rooms, which secured powerful elites.
Privacy was at the apex of the clan imperial and nobles.
The authority of the father figure was greatly increased by families who distinguished gender roles to follow high-ranking officials and scholars.
Women and children merchants and manufacturers stayed cloistered in inner quarters, preserving the sense that local magnates.
Below these elites, lesser clerks, medium and the family matriarch's role was to protect mothers, wives, and small landowners, free farmers, artisans, small merchants, poor children from a harsh society.
Women tenant farmers and hired laborers were still able to make a living.
They are following careers of their own.
An example of an elite woman whose talents reached and private slaves can be found at the bottom.
She was the first female Chinese historian between 100 bce and 200 ce.
After marrying a local resident, imperial center with local society.
The power of landlords and large court was complemented by the prestige of a fourteen-year-old girl who was called Madame Cao.
Acquire private property.
Ban emerged as the dominant clan following the fall of the Han.
Popular religion was informed by classical learning.
Religion linked scholars and officials to the peasantry in the early Han world.
Classical learning remained the preserve of the Confucians at court, but many local communities practiced forms of a very popular Chinese religion.
The court's interest in astronomy was reinforced by the appearance of a supernova, solar halos, meteors, and lunar and solar eclipses.
Powerful ministers used earthquakes and famines to intimidate their ruler, because they were seen as signs of the emperor's lack of virtue.
The emperor had lost his mandate to heaven because of a cluster of calamities.
People of both high and low social positions believed in the power of witchcraft and that it could interfere with the will of heaven.
Religion was an essential feature of Han society from the elite to the poorer classes.
Empires do not stand on their own political and cultural beliefs.
They are more likely to survive by force.
The general rule was that the Han Chinese were no different.
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