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12 -- Part 1: Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia to
During the centuries examined here, the large expanse of Asia underwent profound changes.
The Central Asian grasslands gave birth to nomadic confederations capable of dominating major states.
The nomads' military advantage was due to their mastery of the horse and mounted warfare.
From China and Korea to India and Persia, groups of Turks appeared along the fringes of the settled societies of Eurasia.
Women were influential among the diers.
Many women were converting to Islam.
Even though she spent a lot of time in China in the late twelfth and early thirteenth of her time there, she kept her Mongol dress.
One society after another from Byzantium to the Pacific was subdued by a military genius named Chinggis.
The East-West trade and contact was unprecedented for a century.
The Arab and Turkish armies brought Islam to India.
Regional cultures flourished in India.
Hinduism continued to flourish even after Buddhism declined.
India was the center of a seaborne trade that helped carry Indian ideas and practices to Southeast Asia.
In Southeast Asia, Buddhism was adopted along with other ideas and techniques from India.
Increased contact with the outside world was brought about by the maritime trade in spices and other goods.
The animals are usually small in number.
Grasslands that are too dry for crops draw on the cultures they absorbed.
Too dry for crop agriculture, the grasslands only had a small population of madic herders who lived off their flocks of sheep, goats, camels, horses, or other animals.
The nomadic groups were often violent in their search for water and good pastures.
The small groups on the los ing end faced the threat of enslavement or death, so they made alliances with other groups or moved far away.
Sometimes groups on the win ning end of intertribal conflicts could devote themselves entirely to war and leave the work of tending herds to their slaves and vassals.
nomadic herders would trade their own products, such as horses and furs, in order to get the products of nearby agricultural socie ties.
They would raid to get what they needed.
Most of the time nomadic herders raided other nomads, but nearby agricultural settlements were also common targets.
The skill of horsemen and archers made it difficult for farmers and townsmen to defend against them.
The political organization among herders was very simple.
The chiefs of clans were members of an ex tended family.
The group's leadership was often settled by fighting.
A charismatic leader would emerge who was able to form alliances with other tribes.
Central Asia was mostly Muslim before 1300.
A fragment of a tenth- to twelfth-century illustrated document is written in the Uighur language and depicts Manichean priests.
There is a temple complex in the east.
Turks control north India.
The Eastern Turks fought among themselves and raided China.
The Turks prefer to destroy each other rather than live side by side.
Ten thousand clans who were hostile to and kill the Mongol language were established by the Delhi sultanate.
They mourn their dead and curse vengeance.
The Tang Dynasty in China broke apart after the conquest of Song China.
The Delhi sultanate was taken over by Timur about a century ago.
It had close ties to Tang China and provided military aid.
Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, and Manichaeism were some of the religions adopted by the Uighurs during this period.
The Uighur empire was destroyed in the ninth century by another Turkic people.
Some fled to western China.
The Uighurs created a stable kingdom that lasted four centuries.
There was a complex urban civilization in which Buddhism, Mani chaeism, and Christianity existed side by side, practiced by Turks as wel as by Tokharians, Sogdians, and other Iranian peoples.
Other groups of Turks, such as the Karakhanids, rose to prominence in the west of Central Asia.
Local Muslim forces would try to capture them and use them as slaves.
Many were serving in the Islamic Abbasid armies.
In the tenth century, Central Asian Turks began converting to Islam, which made them less likely to be kidnapped as slaves.
They raided unconverted Turks.
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