Edited Invalid date
11.4 Properties of Alkanes
Nonane has a density of 0.79 g/mL.
To identify the properties of alkanes, you need to draw the structural and line-angle formulas.
Draw the line-angle formulas for alkenes or write the IUPAC names.
H are groups of atoms.
Bond angles predict chemical reactions and draw structures for their products.
Two carbon atoms are connected by a double stick model of ethene bond and each is attached to two H atoms.
Each carbon atom in the double and ethyne shows the functional groups of bond a trigonal arrangement with bond angles of 120 degrees.
The carbon and hydrogen atoms all lie in the same plane as the ethene molecule double or triple bonds are flat.
These are electrons.
The two carbon atoms of the triple bond are compounds called each attached to one hydrogen atom, which gives a triple bond a linear geometry.
It is a plant hormone that promotes the ripening of fruit.
Commercially grown fruit, such as avocados, bananas, and tomatoes, are often picked before they are ripe.
The fruit is exposed to ethylene to speed up the ripening process.
The breakdown of cellulose in plants causes flowers and leaves to fall from trees.
Ethyne, also known as acetylene, is used in welding where it reacts with oxygen to produce flames.
The IUPAC names for alkenes and alkynes are similar to those of alkanes.
A sample problem shows an example of naming an alkene.
The double bond is contained in the longest carbon chain.
There are five carbon atoms in the longest carbon chain.
The carbon chain starts from the end.
Alkenes with two or three carbons don't need numbers.
The location and name of each substituent should be given as a prefix to the alkene name.
The formula for 1-chloro-3-hexyne was drawn.
The double bond does not need a number if there is no substituent.
If there is a substituent, the carbons in the double bond are numbered 1 and 2, and the ring is numbered in the direction of the substituent.
Give the names of the cis-trans isomers of alkenes by drawing the structural formulas.
There is no rotation around the double bond in any alkene.
The formula for 2-butene can be drawn with two different cis-trans isomers.
-2-butene have different physical and chemical properties.
An alkene can have cis-trans isomers if the carbon atoms in the double bond are attached to two different atoms.
You are asked to draw a formula for an alkene.
cis and trans isomers can't be drawn when an alkene has the same carbon atom.
Structural formula without cis and trans isomers.
The carbon atoms of the double bond are on the same side as the halogen atoms of the cis isomer.
There are two alkyl groups attached to the carbon atoms of the double bond and this is a trans isomer.
Because cis-trans isomerism is hard to see, here are some things you can do to understand the difference between a double bond and a single bond.
Put your index fingers together.
A model of a bond.
Think of the index fingers as a pair of carbon atoms and the thumbs and other fingers as other parts of a carbon chain.
While touching your fingers, twist your hands and change the position of your thumbs.
Put your middle and index fingers together in a model of a double bond.
Move your thumbs away from each other by twisting your hands.
The lack of rotation about a double bond is what makes it difficult to move your hands with two fingers.
You have made a model of a cis isomer with both thumbs pointing in the same direction.
You can make a model of a trans isomer if you turn one hand over and the other one points up.
The black gumdrops represent C atoms, the yellow gumdrops represent H atoms, and the green gumdrops represent Cl atoms.
Attach two yellow gumdrops and one green gumdrop to the black gumdrop carbon atom with three more toothpicks.
The rotation of the H and Cl atoms can be seen by moving one of the black gumdrops.
A toothpick and yellow gumdrop can be removed from black gumdrops.
A double bond can be made by placing a second toothpick between the carbon atoms.
The toothpicks have a double bond.
There are models of cis and trans isomers.
The names for the cis-trans isomers of alkenes can be given if needed.
Sending messages to individuals of the same species is possible.
Some silkworm moths will come from distances of over warn of danger, others will come from the opposite direction.
Bombykol, the sex pheromone produced cis or trans configuration of the double bonds in the molecule, is one of the most studied.
One species will respond to one isomer, but not the other.
Scientists are interested in making non toxic alternatives to pesticides.
Bombykol can be used to catch male silkworm moths.
The reproductive cycle is disrupted when a synthetic pheromone is released in a field.
The oriental fruit moth, grapevine moth, and pink Bollworm were all controlled with this technique.
Pheromones allow insects to find mates.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
You're all caught up!
Looks like there aren't any notifications for you to check up on. Come back when you see a red dot on the bell!
Privacy & Terms