medieval Europe notes
- The beginning of the dark ages was caused by the split of Rome because of the large capacity so they couldn't govern all of it collectively.
- Western Europe during the middle ages was different compared with Europe during the Roman Empire because it had a deliberate decline as it brought on wreak havoc on the economy. An example of this is displayed in the constant war between rulers.
- The Roman empire grew its economy by maintaining peace, repairing the damage caused. Rome was split into two sides, the western part was displaying very poor conditions because the emperors could not offer proper leadership leading onto the absence of funding for military strength. This led to the collapse of the western portion as several communities were invaded and ravaged.
DIFFERENT SOCIAL CLASSES:
- Life on a manor affected the different social classes by limiting social mobility for lower classes.
- Feudalism had its occurrence in such events as higher classes had access to more money to get supplies.
- Manorialism: The peasants were reliant on their land and their lord, they lived and worked in the manor.
- Feudalism: A loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord, in which power is equally divided in exchange for work and a promise to fight for the land owner’s interest; decentralized government.
- Chivalry: The code of conduct adopted by knights in the later middle ages.
- Feudal Contract: The exchange of pledges between lords and vassals.
- Draw the social pyramid (right below, the proper order is presented in the triangle as the highest power is on the top - king, and lowest is on the bottom - peasants)
AGE OF FAITH NOTES:
- The middle ages were called the “Age of Faith” because faith was able to reunite and fight a mutual enemy, even though both despised one another (Islam and Christianity moved up together).
- The church had so much power because they influenced many people and provided their believers something to have hope in for a better future.
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE NOTES:
- Characteristics of Gothic architecture include stone structures, columns positioned together, large expanses of glass, and intricate sculptures.
- A key feature of Gothic architecture was the flying buttresses or stong that supported and stood outside the church.
- Secular: Having to do with worldly rather than religious, matters.
- Excommunication: To limit or restrict membership to the church, they cannot take part in religious activities and are shunned by society.
- Sacraments/Canon Law: Body of laws of a church
GROWTH OF CHURCH POWER:
- The growth of Church power leads to conflicts between the papacy and the monarchy by allowing the pope to give power or excommunicate kings.
- This created a conflict between the monarchs because they considered the role of the pope as a person in charge of religious matters
- The role of the monarch was meddled by the pope as appointing archbishops became a focus for both of them (pope and monarch), rather than only the monarch's job (as the pope believed he should have a say in the matter too).
CONTROVERSY BETWEEN POPE AND KING HENRY:
- The controversy between the Pope and King Henry was presented as the pope only desired to bring spiritual reform to the church, increasing his authority (he wanted to choose the church officials).
- On the other hand, King Henry believed that he should have the power to elect church officials at the time.
- As this disagreement continued, Pope Gregory had excommunicated King Henry and he has to beg for forgiveness by standing in the snow for days as he walked to the Pope’s house.
- It was different in England with King John as he also had a disagreement with the pope.
- King John chose to compete against the barons and Pope, as he soon lost most of his leadership. Following this attack, King John was compelled to sign the Magna Carta limiting royal power in England and extending rights (in the year 1215).
- Magna Carta/limited power: A written document in which the king declared a list of
feudal rights for nobles as they only had individually assured rights as the monarchs must
accept the law.
- The motivations for fighting in the crusades would include granted access to heaven (by the pope), wealth, gain land, and if they die in the battle then they will have all their sins forgiven. Which were the most important effects? Which were positive or negative?
- The most important effects of the crusades were the things they brought back such as knowledge, silk, and innovations. These important effects were positive because they were able to gain and bring back items to explore for themselves.
- An example of this is seen in the Byzantine Empire and the city of Constantinople, as both places detained of their political power. Why do historians call the Crusades a successful failure?
- Historians call the crusades a successful failure because they got the information and power they wanted but not the holy land they aimed for.
DECLINE OF FUEDALISM:
- The rise of the towns led to the decline of feudalism by allowing the serfs to leave the manor. The jobs that were newly offered such as an apprentice, provided them a chance to leave.
- How did the Serfs gain their freedom?
- The serfs gained their freedom by granting permission from their lord to escape for a year and become free if not challenged.
- Masters: Somone experienced in a work position
- Apprentice: A young person in learning the trade from a master
- Usury: Practice of lending money with interest
- Guilds: In the middle ages, the association of merchants or artisans cooperated to protect their economic interests.
- Agricultural revolution: Adapting new farming technologies that made their fields more productive, ex: working on the farm with crops and farm animals
BLACK DEATH IMPACT ON MEDIEVAL EUROPE:
- The Black death impacted Medieval Europe by making it more detrimental than it already was.
- The black death left people less religious, created a decline in trade, and antisemitism.
- What were three effects of the Black Death on Europe? (ONE political, social, and economic)
- One political effect of black death is that it allowed social mobility. A social effect would be more food available, a decrease in feudalism, and 25 million people dead.
- An economic effect would be that more jobs are available, an increase in wages, a decrease in manorialism, and a
decline in trade.
- Gothic churches were referred to as “Bibles in Stone” because illumination is the gothic style applied to paintings in the artistic decoration of books that pointed pictures in the church.
- Vernacular: The everyday language of ordinary people, such as French, German, and Italian. Vernacular is the language that everyday language that new writings began to appear in, while Latin was the language of scholars and churchmen.
- Gothic architecture: A art style applied to churches using illumination in Europe.
- Flying buttresses: A key feature of the gothic style of architecture, it had a stone that stood outside and supported the church.
HUNDRED YEARS WAR:
- The causes and effects of the Hundred Years War were the assigning Edward III over to France. Frace attempted to take over English territories.
- This led to the creation of new weapons such as the longbow.
- Joan of Arc was a strategic, intelligent military leader that helped the French in this war and had protected their territory strongly. Although she is considered a martyr to the modern-day, she was burned alive earlier as she was accused of being a heretic.
- Longbow: A six-foot longbow that could rapidly fire arrows with enough force to pierce most armor.
- Heresy: A religious belief that is contrary to the official teachings of a church.
- Joan of Arc: A 17-year-old young woman who claimed God sent her to save France, despite her poor background of being uneducated, she had succeeded in protecting the land of France in the war.
- Martyr: A person who suffers or dies for his or her beliefs.