Group members and leaders can take steps to avoid being caught in the groupthink trap.
The leader should try to remain impartial.
People outside the group should have opinions.
The group should use secret ballots in order to ensure that they express their true feelings.
Discrepant results have been produced by the topic of groupthink.
There is a need for more research in this area.
Membership in a political action committee is usually voluntary.
Some forms of group identification are not within our control.
Students, teachers, bricklayers, Italians, actors, rock musicians, alcoholics, Jews, or Catholics are some of the people who are members of this type.
We are dealing with prejudice and discrimination when we are members of such groups.
These are important aspects of relationships.
Think about where you live.
Think about other countries.
When you thought about your own country, your feelings were more positive than when you thought about others.
The ideal against which other groups are evaluated is the group we belong to.
Other groups are short of ours.
We are being ethnocentric when we compare our nation to others.
Nocentrism is a form of prejudice.
It has been assumed that the results of psychological research done in the United States are similar to those done in other cultures.
These blinders are being removed by the results of cross-cultural studies.
Our judgments of other people are usually based on one characteristic-- their social category or group membership.
We don't need to know anything about the individual in question, just the category.
Some examples of group memberships are young, old, rich, poor, and intellectual.
Positive prejudice is an example of Ethnocentrism.
Negative prejudice is reflected in our thoughts about other countries and cultures.
The negative or positive evaluation that is at the center of preju dice is quite general.
We all know that prejudice can be very specific.
We can describe exactly why a person is desirable or undesirable.
Write down your answer and reasons for selecting it before you read further.
The answer involves a topic that was discussed earlier in the chapter.
If you agree that these specifics are a set of beliefs about the members of a par ticular group, you already know that we are dealing with stereotypes.
All actors are dumb, and all jocks are temperamental.
The softball player in your history class is seen as a dumb jock by the instructor, while your friend is considered to be a troublemaker by the algebra instructor.
A vicious cycle is created when behavior that adversely affects discrimination is acceptable.
Discrimination can occur in many ways, including age, sex, religion, race, and political views.
For all the faculty members at a certain college to be men, despite the fact that many qualified women had applied for faculty positions, would be an instance of sex discrimination.
You should keep in mind that dis crimination can be active and passive.
There are several functions and springs from a variety of sources.
We look at both social and emotional sources of prejudice.
Social standing is often justified by prejudice.
Individuals can rationalize discrimination against members of certain groups by holding negative prejudice against them.
Consider the treatment of slaves, women, racial minorities, and people of different religions.
The members of the in-group share the same values, goals, and beliefs, while the members of the out-group are different.
Your in-group may be our out-group, and vice versa, as the perception of in-group and out-group is relative.
The size of the in-group affects the strength of members' feelings toward that group; smaller in-groups result in stronger favorable attitudes toward other members of the group.
An example of the effect of in-group size is when a small group of fans travel to a neighboring school for an athletic contest.
In the face of a large home crowd, each member's ties to the group seem stronger.
We saw earlier in the chapter that frustra tion can lead to aggression.
prejudice can satisfy our emotional need for status because it makes us feel superior.
An increase in the feeling of insecurity can result in us judging others more harshly.
Students who wrote a short essay about dying were more prejudiced against members of out-groups.
It can have negative effects.
Almost everyone has experienced prejudice or discrimination in one form or another.
"Equal status contact between majority and minority groups in the pursuit of common goals" was a proposal made nearly five decades ago.
When the city commissioned several ing because such contact shows that stereotypes are inaccurate, his hypothesis predicts that close and exten sive contact between group members will result in greater understand.
Before this hypothesis, cooperation in this activity becomes workable, however, several additional qualifications are needed; otherwise, led to a decrease in prejudice and people may dismiss the inaccurate examples and actually strengthen their existing violence among the gangs.
It is difficult to overcome prejudice when one group is seen as having lower social status than another.
In the classic piece of research in this area, Muzafer Sherif and his colleagues demonstrated that competition between groups at a summer boys' camp resulted in prejudice and discrimination.
The groups were forced to work together.
Reducing prejudice and discrimination is a result of cooperation that is successful in achieving a goal.
Research supports the effectiveness of intergroup contact as a way to reduce prejudice.
Intergroup contact can be effective if the conditions are right.
People who have had negative encounters with other people do not react well to intergroup contact.
Someone feels obligated to do something in return.
The presence of other people increases arousal.
There are two types of leaders.
The cognitive approach to persuasion seeks to determine what tasks are confronting the group and the other is thought processes that occur during persuasion.
The process of making group decisions that promote group commands is high.
Stereotypes are an important part of prejudice.
The decisions of a group may be riskier than the decisions of other groups.
Intermediate scores range from 9 to 14.
There are scores of 0 to 8.
T knows how to influence other people's emotions.
The features and packaging used to sell Organizational psychology may have been influenced by additional research.
I/O psychologists look at all aspects of workplace design.
Industrial psychology was the first area to develop.
Organizational psychology deals with topics such as personality, com munication, and organizational behavior.
Most researchers don't see the two specialties as separate and distinct.
We will look at them separately in order to understand their nature and charac teristics.
One of the key steps in the development of I/O psychology is the scenario at the beginning of this section.
As well as forensic psychology, Munsterberg's interest in applications of psychology extended to other areas.
Until World War I, psychology was not used on a large scale.
A committee headed by Walter Scott developed a rating scale for select officers.
Scott took on the job of assigning the right man to the right job based on their success.
The Committee on Classification of Per sonnel in the Army was headed by Robert M. Yerkes, who was assisted by two other psychologists.
They were tasked with identifying and eliminating the mentally ill from service in the U.S. Army.
After the war, psychologists began to develop other tests for the selection of civilian.
The process of selecting employees begins with online job advertisements.
Industrial psychologists are interested in determining the basic knowledge, skills, and other characteristics needed to perform a given job.
Employment law affects their work in a variety of ways.
Some of the most important laws are summarized in Table 16-1
Affirmative action is a social policy that was developed to reduce the effects of decades of prior discrimination.
Affirmative action is included in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's guidelines.
Affirmative action has four goals: 1) to correct present inequalities in job and educational opportunities, 2) to compensate for past inequalities, and 3) to provide role models by increasing the number of minority group
One of the two basic types of job analysis is conducted by an industrial psychologist.
The O*NET is an excellent source of information on job or work analyses.
The knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform a wide variety of jobs are provided by this online source.
A wealth of information is provided by this easy to use data source.
You can use personal characteristics that are important to you to search for jobs on O*NET.
The responsibilities of a job of the recognized procedures include interviews, work samples, applications, letters of recommendation, tests, and situational exercises.
We talk about the interview that is needed to do that job.
Issues of racial discrimination in the workplace can be seen as a form of slavery.
New businesses have to be accessible to the disabled and existing businesses have to make improvements.
Interviews have poor validity because they have little ability to predict which job candidates become good workers.
Employers still use interviews to find workers.
From a company's perspective, consider this question.
Write down your reasons.
There is a $10 million company.
Signing a pay voucher.
There is a storage system for company forms.
A marketing plan is needed for a nationwide showing.
A program to detect computer viruses.
A Vcr is used to watch a tape.
A clean, efficient power plant is being designed.
There is a door lock.
In terms of reliability, validity, fairness, applicability, time requirements, and cost, selection procedures vary.
Good validity and reliability can be found in job application forms.
Application forms are part of the job selection process.
Most interviewers think they can "size people up" through an interview and determine whether they will be good employees.
It is relatively cost- and time- efficient to interview.
Selection interviews are well established and hard to abandon, yet they are often criticized for their limited reliability and validity.
Research-based guidelines can be used to improve the reliability and validity of interviews.
The job analysis is required by professional and legal guidelines.
The approach should raise validity by increasing the job-relatedness of interview questions and decreasing the amount of irrelevant infor mation collected during the interview.
In order to standardize the sample of behavior used to judge each interviewee, the same questions should be asked of each job candidate.
Third, questions can be improved by using more hypothetical situations, questions about the candidate's background, and questions about the past.
The same interviewers should interview each candidate.
Random errors should be averaged out by the use of multiple interviewers.
Employers who follow the guidelines would be in a better position to defend their selection procedures against accusations of discrimination in the hiring process.
Table 16-3 contains descriptions of some commonly used tests.
Successful tests must be reliable, valid, and standardized.
There are requirements for personnel tests as well.
The validity and reliability of the tests could be considered unfair.
After falling out of favor, personality testing is back.
Cognitive tests have been the most frequently used selection measure in the past.
Employers have searched for alternative selection measures because cognitive tests inevitably result in adverse impact.
The recent development of the five-factor model gave a useful way to organize personality traits and apply them to job performance.
Extra version and conscientiousness are two of the five factors that can be used to predict job performance.
The best predictions will be decided by an industrial psychol ogist.
New employees need to be trained in company procedures, policies, and equipment.
The job of federal flight deck officer is one of the newest employment areas in which psychologists are making major contributions.
The job was created after the terrorist attacks.
Federal flight deck officers act as a last line of defense against terrorism and only have jurisdiction on the airplane flight deck.
The development of an effective screen ing program and the training of officers was done by psychologists.
Training and selection go together.
Continuous training is required in technical fields such as computer Sys because knowledge becomes obsolete in a short time.
Training is more than just for new recruits; experienced personnel also benefit from new training programs and refresher courses.
A printer uses two sizes of type to print an article of 48,000 words.
Several steps are involved in a comprehensive training program.
Who needs to be trained, what training program to use, and what is to be taught are all determined by the needs assessment.
Only a small percentage of companies conduct a needs assessment to determine their training requirements.
The training objectives are established once the needs assessment is complete.
Trainers design the training program after selecting the training methods.
Most training programs involve a mix of learning principles.
The evaluation of the training program is the last step after the training program has been implemented.
There are two ways to evaluate training.
The evaluation of the objectives that the trainer developed before training is the most expensive and time consuming procedure.
If training involved learning new computer skills, the evaluation would determine if they were learned.
This procedure is quick and cheap, but it doesn't give much helpful information.
If you've held a job, you've experienced a performance evaluation.
The evaluation usually involves ratings across a number of performance dimensions.
Performance appraisals can affect decisions about promotions, raises, and layoffs.
Making the evaluations fair and systematic is one of the greatest challenges in appraisal.
Supervisors may give ratings that are not in line with employees' actual performance.
One way to increase agreement in performance appraisals is to provide explicit instructions and standards.
There are two types of performance appraisal criteria.
Different raters should arrive at the same rating because objective criteria are easy to observe.
If two production managers watch a worker assemble radios, they should count the number of radios produced at the end of the day.
Subjective criteria are not the same as objective criteria.
The instrument used to record subjective ratings is highly variable and can be affected by a range of personal styles.
In white-collar jobs, this approach is called mentoring.
Military simulations are used to train soldiers for the battlefield.
Video and arcade games are available to the public.
The main methods for rating performance are comparative methods and individual methods.
Try to assess more general attitudes or factors such as communications skills.
Development of the instrument can take a lot of time, but it can prove useful in evaluating employees and providing feedback.
Even though the employee is rated individually, comparisons are made with other employees.
Quality of work, dependability, and ability to get along with coworkers are some of the important aspects of the job that can be rated on a number of scales.
The scales evaluate 7 to 12 performance dimensions.
The scales that define the performance dimensions and rating cat egories are the best.
A written account of the worker's performance is involved in this technique.
Specific examples in support of the rater's commentary are included in the better narratives.
Performance appraisals should be made as soon as possible after the job is done.
When the supervisor believes that personal effort is involved, these effects are found in performance appraisals.
Superior performance will be rated more highly and inferior per for mance will be rated more harshly.
It has been shown that employees attribute more weight to the situation than to the actions of the supervisor.
Individual appraisals represent a typically Western view of evaluation.
There are different ways of giving assessment feedback to employees.
It can be difficult to detect unconscious biases on the part of the rater.
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