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Copy of Ch. 14 sec 1 Cause and Effect Russian Rev. (1) REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA Analyzing Causes and Recognizing Effects… As you read this section, take notes to answer questions about some factors in Russia that helped lead to revolution. A. How did each of the following help to ignite the full-scale revolution? Policies of the Czars Harsh autocratic rule created mistrust between the populace and the czars. Alexander III started extreme autocracy and imposed censorship, a secret police, and oppressed foreign national groups. Industrialization and Economic Growth Industrialization (new problems: bad conditions, child labor, low wages…)--> discontent populace→ revolutionary movements: Marxists believed proletariats would overthrow Czar. Economic growth led to competition. The Russo-Japanese War Late 1800s Russo-Japanese War: Russia vs japan for control of Korea and Manchuria… Russians broke agreements and Japan attacked Port Arthur, Manchuria in 1904… led to revolts and showed the czar’s weakness “Bloody Sunday” 1/ 22/ 1905: 200,000 workers carried petition for better conditions and more freedom to czar’s Winter Palace… Generals ordered soldiers to shoot crowds… 1,000 wounded, hundreds of casualties… led to revolts and Nicholas approved the first Duma (parliament) in 1905. Duma met in May 1906, leaders were moderates and wanted Russia to become a constitutional monarchy like Britain. Czar dissolved Duma after ten weeks to keep power. World War I 1914 Nicholas II dragged Russia into war… unprepared for military and economic costs… 4 million casualties, weak leadership. 1915 Nicholas moved to front, left wife Czarina Alexandra...influenced by Rasputin who eased her son’s symptoms for hemophilia… Rasputin opposed reform measures and obtained positions for his friends… was murdered in 1916 by nobles fearing his power… Home front no food, supplies, prices inflated… soldiers mutinied, deserted. The March Revolution 1917: Women textile workers in Petrograd led strike over no bread+fuel. Soldiers first shot into crowds but then joined riots → led to huge uprising (March Revolution). B. How did each of the following help the Bolsheviks gain and hold political control? November 1917 Revolution Bolsheviks Red Guards (factory workers) stormed Petrograd Winter Palace. It ended the Provisional Government and gave power to the Bolsheviks. Civil war between the Red and White armies Fighting and famine caused millions of deaths. It proved that the Bolsheviks were able both to take power and maintain it. The victory crushed opposition to Bolshevik rule. Organization of Russia into republics It unified the country under a centralized power. C. What role did each of the following pay in the Russian Revolution? Karl Marx His ideas (Marxism) were the basis for the Revolution. V. Lenin He led the Bosheviks. Leon Trotsky He aided the negotiation of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty and commanded the Bolshevik Red Army Explain who Rasputin was: Rasputin was a “holy-man” with “healing powers” who gained influence on Czarina Alexandra while Nicholas II was at the front. He opposed reform and obtained powerful positions for his friends, but was murdered by nobles because of his decisions. Explain what a “Soviet” is: Soviets were local councils consisting of soldiers, peasants and workers that were formed by socialist revolutionists. They generally held more power than the provisional government. Explain the Provisional Gov’t: The Provisional Government arose after the collapse of the Romanov dynasty. It was headed by Alexander Kerenky. It’s main mistake was the decision to continue fighting in WWI.