Arnold's plot was exposed by the capture of a British spy.
Arnold joined the British because he was afraid that his plan had been discovered.
The combined forces of Cornwallis and his army were 7,200 men.
As the Americans approached, Cornwallis chose the small tobacco port of Yorktown as his base of operations.
He wasn't worried about an American attack because General Washington's main force appeared to be focused on the British occupation of New York City.
The British blockaded New port, Rhode Island, for a year after the French landed 6,000 soldiers there in July 1780.
The Americans could not hope to win the war if the British navy continued to dominate along the coast.
The elements for a combined French- American action fell into place in May 1781.
Washington persuaded the commander of the French army in Rhode Island to join the attack on the British in New York City.
The word came from the Caribbean that the French navy was headed for the bay.
The British navy did.
The French troops joined the Americans on August 30 after de Grasse's twenty- four warships won the race.
The allies were going to trap them.
As the U.S.- French army closed in, French warships prevented a British escape.
It was too late for Cornwallis to realize what was happening.
On September 6, the day after the British fleet appeared, de Grasse attacked and forced the British navy to abandon Cornwallis's army, leaving him without a way to get food and supplies.
More than double the size of Cornwallis's army, the combined American and French armies were brought down by De Grasse's ships.
The American and French troops began bombarding the British with cannons after closing off Cornwallis's last escape route.
The British held out for three weeks before running out of food.
On October 17, 1781, Cornwallis surrendered.
A British general tried to give his sword to a French admiral, but was told that he would have to give it to the British commander, Charles Cornwallis.
Cornwallis was too sick to take part in the ceremony.
Washington told O'Hara to give his sword to the deputy commander.
The American reported that the British officers behaved like boys.
Thousands of former slaves who joined the British army in hopes of gaining their freedom were among Cornwallis's surrendered army.
George Washington owned two slaves that were returned to their owners.
The war was not over even after Cornwallis surrendered the British army.
There were over 20,000 British troops in America.
British ships still blockaded other American ports.
There were no British hopes of a military victory.
King George did not send more troops to America because the war was lost.
The British contacted Benjamin Franklin in Paris to ask if the Americans would sign a peace treaty with Great Britain without involving the French.
On February 27th, 1782, Parliament voted to begin negotiations to end the war, and on March 20th, Lord North resigned.
The British leaders chose peace in America so that they could concentrate on their war with France and Spain.
Benjamin Franklin was told that France was willing to allow the United States to negotiate its own peace treaty with Great Britain.
The British surrender at Yorktown was painted by John Trumbull.
The Continental Congress named a group of prominent Americans to go to Paris to discuss terms with the British after learning of their decision to negotiate.
They included John Adams, who was representing the United States in the Netherlands; John Jay, minister (ambassador) to Spain; and Benjamin Franklin, already in France.
Most of the work leading to the peace treaty was done by Franklin and Jay.
The Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783, after months of negotiations.
The provisions were favorable to the United States.
The Mississippi River was Amer ica's western boundary and Great Britain agreed that it was more than doubling the territory of the new nation.
The biggest loser in the final treaty was the Native Americans.
For years, the treaty's unclear references to America's northern and southern borders would be a source of dispute.
It was passed back to Spain from Britain.
The U.S. promised British merchants that they would be able to collect their prewar debts.
The fact that the Americans had defeated the British Empire was a significant event.
Edmund Burke is a prominent British politician.
The Americans gained a strong sense of their own power and knowledge of the limitations of British power when they unexpectedly won the war.
The British troops left New York City in November of 1783.
George Washington appeared before the Continental Congress.
When invited to speak, he stood with trembling hands and a rasping voice and asked the members to accept his retirement from the army.
I retired from the great theater of Action after finishing the work assigned to me.
The American war for independence had an effect on political, economic, and social life.
African Americans, women, and Indians were affected by the long war because they had been dis criminated against.
The Revolution was used for political experimentation and social change.
There was a lengthy debate about what new forms of govern ment would best serve the new American republic.
The new American republic was not a democ that was naughty.
The Revolutionary leaders believed that they needed to protect the rights of individuals and states from being violated by the national government in order to preserve the balance between liberty and power in the new republic.
As a result of the Revolutionary War, a new nation was being created, all of which were designed to limit the powers of government so as to protect the rights of the people.
Most of the political experimentation took place at the state level in the form of written consti tutions in which the people granted limited authority to their governments.
A bill of rights that protected freedom of speech, trial by jury, freedom from self- incrimination, and the like were included in most of the con stitutions.
The powers of governors were limited.
The Continental Congress had emergency powers before March 1781.
There are plans for a permanent form of government.
The Confederation government did not allow for a president or a chief executive.
Foreign affairs and disputes between the states were given full power by the confederation con gress.
The Confederation had no power to enforce its resolutions.
It was not possible to impose taxes and its budgetary needs depended on the states.
The states did not want a strong central government.
Since it couldn't regulate interstate and foreign commerce, the confederation congress was granted less power than the colonists.
A "special major ity" was required for certain important acts.
Measures dealing with war, treaties, coinage, finances, and the army and navy had to be approved by nine states.
In order to impose tariffs on imports and amend the Articles, unanimous approval from the states was needed.
The most practical structure for the new nation was sent by the Confederation government.
The Revolu tion on the battlefields had yet to be won, and an America besieged by British armies and warships could not risk divisive debates over the distribution of power.
The new state governments did not want a strong national government that would threaten their liberties.
The creation of state governments led to more citi zens participating.
Property qualifications for voting, which already allowed an overwhelming majority of white men to vote, were low after the Revolutionary fervor.
A group of farm ers said that no man can be free and independent unless he has a voice.
Any male taxpayer in Pennsylvania, Delaware, North Carolina, and Georgia could not vote if they owned a lot of property.
Farmers and shop keepers were elected to state legislatures.
A higher percentage of American males could vote in the late 18th and early 19th century than in Great Britain.
The American Revolution was fought in the name of liberty, a virtue that proved elusive even in victory.
The Revolution was supposed to remove, not reinforce, the elite's traditional political and social advantages.
The wealthy would have been content to replace royal officials with the rich, wel born, and able-- and let it go.
The new republic's social fabric and political culture were different after the war.
The concepts of liberty, equality, and democracy changed the dynamics of American social and political life in ways that people could not have imagined in 1776.
The Loyalists were hurt the most by the civil war.
They were hurt by their loyalty to King George III and their refusal to pledge loyalty to the new United States.
During and after the Revolution, the property of many Loyalists was seized and destroyed.
There were a lot of atrocities on both sides.
After the American victory at Yorktown, tens of thousands of panicked Loy alists made their way to seaports to board British ships and flee the United States.
Thousands of African Americans, mostly runaway slaves, went to New York City, Charleston, and Savannah with their angry owners in pursuit.
Loyalists fled to the Caribbean and Canada after the Revolution.
The British cartoon shows the savages letting loose and hanging and killing Loyalists.
After the war, the commander in chief of British forces in North America organized a mass exodus.
He defiantly told George Washington that his slaves from Mount Vernon had already escaped and boarded British ships for Canada, despite the Treaty of Paris requiring him to return them to their owners.
White Loyalists, free blacks, freed slaves, and Native Americans who had allied with the British changed it in the process.
Thousands of former slaves who were freed in exchange for joining the British army were among the refugees who settled in Canada.
The British helped the freed blacks create an experimental colony called Freetown.
Thousands of Loyalists from Georgia and South Carolina went to British-controlled East Florida in order to see their new home handed over to Spain in 1783.
They were given a choice: swear loyalty to the Spanish king or convert to Catholicism.
The Loyalists who sneaked back into the United States went to British islands in the Caribbean.
The largest number of Loyalist exiles landed in Canada, where the royals wanted them to leave the country.
One of the most important social consequences of the Revolution was the departure of so many Loyalists.
New social, economic, and political ties were created by their homes, lands, and jobs.
The Americans negotiating the peace treaty agreed that the Continental Congress would recommend to the states that the property be restored.
The Revolution tested traditional religious loyalties and set in motion important changes in the relationship between church and government.
The early nineteenth century saw the development of a national presence for the Congregational Church.
The first African American minister was depicted here.
The Anglican Church, established as the official religion in five colonies and parts of two others, was vulnerable to changes caused by the war.
Baptists and Methodists outnumbered Anglicans in all states except Virginia.
After the fighting ended, Virginia eliminated tax support for the church.
The new Episcopal Church did not regain its pre- Revolutionary stature.
The free exercise of religion was guaranteed by the Virginia Declaration of Rights.
The course that religious life would take in the new United States was shaped by these statutes and the Revolutionary ideology that justified them.
The United States offered more opportunities for freedom than Great Britain did.
All slaves and indentured servants would be freed if they joined the Loyalist cause, according to the British royal governor of Virginia.
The number grew to almost 1,000 males and doubled the number of women and children.
One of George Washington's slaves, Harry Washington, joined the all- black Ethiopian Regiment.
In Virginia, where 40 percent of the population was black, George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and other white plantation owners were incensed by the British recruitment of slaves.
The slaves escaped from Jefferson's plantation.
A Virginia planter beat a fifteen- year- old girl with a whip and poured hot coals on her wounds after she tried to join the British army.
The wealthiest black man in North America was executed in Charleston, South Carolina, in the 18th century.
A harbor pilot owned slaves.
His body was burned to ashes after he was hanged.
The southern Revolutionaries fought to retain their slave- labor system rather than fight for independence.
The British policy of recruiting slaves backfired.
The prospect of British troops helping slaves join the cause was terrifying.
The Revolution was a war to defend slavery for many southern whites.
The Revolutionary rebellion was fueled by racial prejudice.
The slaves of South Carolina were not taken from them by the British in the Revolutionary War.
At the end of the 18th century, General Washington authorized the enlistment of free blacks into the American army despite the fact that they were not slaves.
In February 1776, southern representatives convinced the Continental Congress to tell General Washington not to free or enslaved African Americans.
South Carolina and Georgia did not allow blacks to serve in the forces.
The American Revolution didn't listen to the south.
Massachusetts and Rhode Island organized army units that included Native Americans.
Free blacks from northern states made up most of the 5,000 African Americans who fought on the Patriot side.
Peter Salem, an African American slave, was freed by the Belknap family so that he could join the Massachusetts militia.
A free black soldier is depicted fighting for the British in the Revolutionary War.
The vast majority of African Americans did not choose sides in the war, even though thousands of free blacks and runaway slaves did.
Several hundred thousand enslaved blacks took advantage of the disruptions caused by the war to seize their free dom.
Others used the Revolution to promote freedom.
Lemuel Haynes, a free black who served in the Massachusetts militia, used the language of the Declaration of Inde pendence to deliver a sermon.
The ideals of liberty and freedom led most states to end slavery in the North, which had fewer slaves than the South.
The southern states had little to no impact on those ideals.
The political disputes of the young nation would continue to be shaped by the differing attitudes towards slavery.
The ideal of liberty was applied to the status of women as much as it was to African Americans.
British common law treated women like children and limited their roles in the household.
Women couldn't hold office.
Few had access to formal education.
Boys and girls were taught to read and sew.
In the 18th century, most New England women couldn't write their own names.
Women were subject to their fathers' decisions until they married.
All property that a woman brought to a marriage became his, as she became the possession of her hus band.
There was no right for a married woman to buy or manage property.
Any wages a wife earned belonged to her husband.
Women couldn't sign contracts, file lawsuits or testify in court.
A husband could beat and rape his wife with out fear of legal action.
It was difficult to get a divorce.
The Revolution gave women new opportunities.
Thousands of women, mostly wives, mothers, or sisters of soldiers, supported the armies.
In exchange for daily ration, the American Revolution nurses the soldiers.
Women were paid to be personal servants for some officers.
Women had no choice but to follow their husbands in war because they had no place to live.
Cattle, sheep, or hogs were guarded by some camp followers.
Others sold things.
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Sometimes wives of camp followers brought their children with them.
Washington wanted to ban women and children from being camp followers.
He once said he was frustrated at the number of women.
He was forced to accept the permanence of camp followers because he was afraid to lose a number of men who would have followed their wives home.
Women risked their lives in battle to help the soldiers.
Sometimes wives took the place of their husbands in battle.
In 1777, some 400 armed women were sent to fight in Vermont.
The men of the town went off to fight when a group of Loyalists and Indians arrived.
The women held off the attackers until help arrived.
Several women dressed as men and fought as sol diers.
An exceptional case was Deborah Sampson, who joined a Massachusetts regiment as "Robert Shurtleff" and served from 1781 to 1783 by the "artful concealment" of her gender.
Ann Bailey did the same thing.
Bailey was dismissed, jailed, and fined after she was discovered to be a woman.
Some women wanted their own independence because of America's war against Great Britain.
While surprised an ardent patriot, Adams and other that women might be dissatisfied, he women like her saw disappointingly few insisted on retaining the traditional changes in women's rights emerging in privileges enjoyed by males.
He warned that if women were to be granted equality, children and apprentices would also demand equal rights and freedoms.
Adams's stance was shared by Thomas Jefferson.
There was no place for female political participation in the new American republic.
Improvements in the status of women would have to wait.
British and American agents urged the chiefs to fight for their side in the war, even though most Native Americans wanted to remain neutral.
The result was chaos.
Indians on both sides killed people.
After the war, the American government assured its Indian allies that it would respect their lands.
Americans destroyed and displaced Native Ameri cans during the war.
After independence, there was no peace for the Indians.
Land hungry Americans were once again pushing into Indian territories on the western frontier by the end of the 18th century.
Adams had everything right but the date.
July 4 was Independence Day because the Declaration of Independence was approved on that day.
The most important public ritual in the United States is the celebration of Independence Day.
People stopped their normal routines in order to attend parades, patriotic speeches, and fireworks displays.
The infant republic created a myth of national identity.
The idea of American nationalism was stirring.
The new nation was not from the past.
Its people, except for the Native Americans, had no idea of a common ethnic descent.
The New World has been thought of as a special place by many people since the time of the Pilgrims.
Much of the energy for Amer ica's development was provided by this sense of providential mission.
Thomas Jefferson to the pragmatism of George Washington to heady toasts bellowed in South Carolina claimed a special role for American leadership in history.
The first goal was to gain inde pendence.
People believed that God was guiding the United States to lead the world in liberty and equality.
The American war is over, but this is not the case with the American Revolution according to Benjamin Rush.
George Washington acknowledged the importance of the work.
He told the American people in a letter that it would be their choice.
Americans had already done the impossible and he was still hopeful.
He urged the citizens to be thankful as they demonstrate to a skeptical world that a large and unruly republic could survive and flourish.
The Continental army was created from scratch by the Americans.
More people joined the Continental army as a result of the victory.
The colonies were likely allies of the French from the beginning of the conflict because they resented their losses to Britain in the Seven Years' War.
When terrorist tactics backfired, the British lost support on the frontier and southern colonies.
The American Revolution was a civil war.
There were many Loyalists in the colonies.
They included royal officials, Anglican ministers, wealthy southern planters, and the elite in large seaport cities.
Many Loyalists, including slaves who had fled plantations to support the British cause, left for Canada, the West Indies, or England after the hostilities ended.
Traditional class and social relationships were disrupted by the American Revolution.
Southern states were reluctant to free slaves.
After the war, many women did not change their legal or political status, as they remained mostly confined to the domestic sphere.
The Revolution had terrible effects on Native Americans, even if they were allied with one side during the war.
In violation of existing treaties, American settlers seized Native American land.
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