The countries that did not do as well experienced the opposite.
In these countries, freeing up markets often led to inflation and a decline in the standard of living.
The way privatization was carried out made the problems worse.
Some countries that have done well, such as Russia and Azerbaijan, owe their economic success to natural resources rather than the development of a private sector, reflecting the problem of the resource trap we spoke of in Chapter 6.
There is a correlation between economic growth and the rule of law.
Economic transition is less successful when the rule of law is weak because entrepreneurs don't have a predictable environment in which to invest and political leaders use their positions to suck off resources for themselves.
All of the rich post- soviet states have the same levels of corruption.
As markets and private property become central economic forces, postcommunist countries have seen an increase in unemployment and an increase in inequality.
The process has been balanced by economic prosperity for most of the population.
In parts of the former Soviet Union where economic change has made a significant part of the population feel worse off, nostalgia for the old order and obstacles to democratization have arisen.
Many large industries and natural resources have been renationalized and mercantilist economic policies have been adopted in Russia.
Russia's military involvement in Ukraine is related to this nostalgia.
Greece and Portugal are included for comparison.
The high level of growth necessary to close the gap between themselves and the developed democracies will be difficult for most postcommunist countries.
The rapid growth experienced during the last decade has declined due to global economic difficulties, and this has increased skepticism for economic and political reform.
It has increased the appeal of populist and nationalist leaders.
The success rate of eco nomic transition outside of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union has been the same.
Much attention has been given to China, which is still run by a communist party, but it can be thought of as a "postcommunist" in its economic system.
The Chinese Communist Party has supported the expansion of private business and agriculture in China since the 1970s.
The slogan of this set of economic reforms--"to get rich is glorious"--sounds anything but Marxist, and it is based on the realization that earlier drives for rapid economic growth led to disaster.
The Chinese introduced economic transition and restricted political change in order to better manage the course of reform, which has led to the success of these reforms.
The Chinese economy has grown by leaps and bounds, lifting hundreds of million out of poverty and transforming the country.
The very idea of globalization is tied to China's integration into the world market.
The Chinese model has its own problems.
Inflation, corruption, unemployment, and growing inequality are just some of the problems that have arisen as a result of economic growth and the development of a free market and private property.
The rule of law's weakness makes these problems worse.
The question is how strong the country will become, as China's rapid development has been profound.
China is seen as a growing economic power that will surpass the economies of Asia and the world.
The democratization of one-fifth of the world's population is believed to be the result of this development.
South Korea and Taiwan had different levels of economic development when they transitioned to democracy.
Some caution that the Chinese miracle doesn't cover up serious problems.
Economic development in China has slowed, and the country must provide new economic opportunities for an increasingly well- educated population.
The societies of postcommunist countries have been fundamentally transformed.
The people of The Transformation of Societal Institutions 295 face a world much more uncertain and unclear than they did before communist control.
The freedom to act more independently in postcommunist societies carries with it greater risk.
A social vacuum has been created because of the elimination of an ideology in people's lives.
The transition from communism in all of these countries has been difficult as people adjust to new realities and seek new individual and collective identities.
In various ways, the transformation of society has happened.
Religion has reappeared in many countries after being suppressed by the communists.
According to public opinion research conducted by the World Values Survey, religion has increased in prominence in many communist countries since 1989.
In a 1989-93 survey, they found that 80% of Chinese people said God wasn't important in their lives; as of 2010-14, that number had dropped to less than a third.
Similar shifts can be seen in Russia.
Christianity is an important force in postcommunist Europe, often as part of nationalism rather than a private profession of faith.
The resurgence of Islam in countries with large Muslim populations is a problem for leaders who have been in power for a long time.
New and old religious movements are growing in China.
Christianity and Islam have gained ground in far western China.
Confucian ideals and practices that were once attacked as symbols of feudal oppression have been promoted by the Communist Party.
During periods of political and economic disruption, religious institutions can provide social support.
Increasing sectarianism and fundamentalism is possible.