The colonization of the American Southwest took longer than in Spain.
The explorations made by Coronado and others in the area in the 16th century were considered failures since they did not find gold or advanced civilizations that could be put to work for the Spanish empire.
The area was neglected by Spain for another 50 years.
Juan de Onate led a group of 400 soldiers, colonists, and missionaries to establish a permanent settlement north of Mexico in 1598.
While searching for precious metals, Onate's nephew and fourteen soldiers were killed by inhabitants of Acoma, a "sky city" located on a high bluff in New Mexico.
The local Indians were taught a lesson by Onate.
After a two-day siege, his forces scaled the seemingly impregnable heights and destroyed Acoma, killing more than 800 of its 1,500 inhabitants, including 300 women.
The women and children were forced to work in Spanish families and the adult men were cut off one foot.
Acoma, which had been inhabited since the 13th century, was rebuilt in the 1640s.
Any Indians who resisted Spanish authority would be crushed.
Authorities in Mexico City were alarmed by his method of rule and his failure to locate gold.
In 1606, Onate was punished for his treatment of New Mexico's Indians.
Santa Fe is the capital of New Mexico and the first permanent European settlement in the Southwest.
New Mexico's small and vulnerable colonist population numbered less than 3000 in the 16th century.
Governors, settlers, and missionaries sought to exploit the labor of an Indian population that declined from about 60,000 in 1600 to some 17,000 eighty years later.
The Franciscan friars used intimidation and violence to convert Indians to Catholicism.
European goods and technologies they introduced impressed many Indians.
As a counterbalance to the depredations of soldiers and settlers, some natives welcomed them with open arms, even as they continued to practice their old religion, adding Jesus, Mary, and the Catholic saints to their already rich spiritual pantheon.
As the persecution of non-Catholics became more intense in Spain, the friars tried to stop traditional religious ceremonies in New Mexico.
By burning Indian idols, masks, and other sacred objects, the missionaries alienated more Indians than they converted.
The authorities' inability to protect the villages and missions from attacks by marauding Navajo and Apache Indians added to local discontent.
The people of the Pueblo were divided.
The colonizers were assumed to never be able to unite against the Indians.
They were proven wrong in August 1680.
Pope was the leader of the uprising that aimed to drive the Spanish from the colony and restore the Indians' traditional autonomy.
In 1675, Pope was one of forty-seven Pueblo Indians arrested for "sorcery", practicing their traditional religion.
Pope was brought to Santa Fe to be publicly whipped after four prisoners were hanged.
Pope began holding secret meetings in the Pueblo communities after this humiliation.
New Mexico's Indians joined in a coordinated uprising under Pope's leadership.
Spanish became the revolt's "lingua franca" because the Pueblos spoke six different languages.
400 colonists, including 21 Franciscan missionaries, were killed when 2,000 warriors destroyed isolated farms and missions.
Santa Fe was surrounded by them.
The Spanish had no choice but to leave the town.
The Spanish survivors and several hundred Christian Indians made their way out of New Mexico.
The area had been colonized for a century.
The freedom lost through Spanish conquest was reestablished by the Pueblo Indians.
The only expulsion of settlers in the history of North America was the result of the Revolt of the Native Americans.
According to a royal attorney who interviewed the Spanish survivors in Mexico City, the revolt came from the many oppressions the Indians had suffered.
Fruit trees, cattle, churches, and images of Christ and the Virgin Mary were destroyed by the victorious Pueblos.
The friars had banned sacred dances from their places of worship.
The cooperation among the peoples of the Pueblo ceased soon.
Even as Apache and Navajo raids continued, warfare broke out among several villages.
Around 1690, Pope died.
The Spanish invaded New Mexico in 1692.
Some communities welcomed them back with open arms.
Spain had learned a lesson.
In the 18th century, colonial authorities made less demands on Indian labor and adopted a more tolerant attitude towards traditional religious practices.
There are people born in the New World of European ancestry.
Indian laborers worked on a large-scale farm in the Spanish New World empire.
English imperial expansion was based on the idea that the Spanish New World empire was more oppressive towards the Indians than other European empires.
The Spanish were temporarily driven out of New Mexico during the 1680 Uprising.
A Catholic missionary advocated for better treatment for Indians.
Indians were free to earn wages but were also required to perform a fixed amount of labor yearly in the Spanish labor system.
If the Black Legend inspired a sense of superiority among Spain's European rivals, the precious metals that poured from the New World into the Spanish treasury aroused the desire to try to match Spain's success.
The balance of power in the world economy was changed by the establishment of Spain's American empire.
The major axis of global trade was replaced by the Atlantic.
The French, Dutch, and English established colonies in North America during the 17th century.
In the next chapter, we'll discuss England's mainland colonies, which had agricultural settlements with growing populations and constant conflict with native peoples.
Commercial ventures like New France and New Netherland never attracted large numbers of people.
Native Americans enjoyed more freedom in their relations with French and Dutch settlements because they were more dependent on Indians as trading partners and military allies.
The first of Spain's major European rivals to embark on New World explorations was France.
The Northwest Passage is a sea route connecting the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Early French explorers were disappointed that North America was not a promising site for settlement or exploitation.
For most of the 16th century, explorers, fishermen, pirates, and fur traders visited the eastern coast of North America.
The French failed to establish settlements in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia because of resistance and inadequate planning.
France, England and the Netherlands did not establish permanent settlements in North America until the 17th century.
Quebec was founded in 1608 by the explorer Samuel de Champlain.
The entire Mississippi River valley was claimed by Sieur de La Salle by 1681, after the Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette and the fur trader Louis Joliet found the river.
New France formed a giant arcs along the St. Lawrence, Mississippi, and Ohio rivers.
French Canada was ruled by the Company of New France until 1663, when the population of European origin was less than 3,000.
There wasn't a representative assembly.
A new company was established by the French government.
The land along the St. Lawrence River was granted to well- connected nobles and army officers.
Most of the indentured servants returned home after their contracts expired.
The majority of the migrants were men.
The number of women who came to French Canada in the 17th century was less than the number of men.
Only about 250 complete families did so during the entire colonial period.
The number of white people in New France had risen by 1700.
France sent fewer people to the Western Hemisphere than England.
France's role as a European great power was feared to be in danger by the government at home.
There were unfavorable reports about America in France.
Canada was depicted as an icebox, a dumping ground for criminals.
The majority of French who left their homes during these years preferred to live in the Netherlands, Spain or the West Indies.
Over 100,000 Huguenots fled their country after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes.
The crown wanted to remain an outpost of Catholicism in New France.
The viability of New France was dependent on friendly relations with local Indians.
The French were proud to adopt a more humane policy.
The French worked out a complex series of military, commercial, and diplomatic connections between Indians and settlers, the most enduring alliances between Indians and settlers in colonial times.
The explorer who dominated the early history of New France insisted on religious toleration for all Christians and denied that Native Americans were inferior to Europeans.
He wanted to create a colony based on mutual respect between different peoples.
The Jesuits tried to convert Indians to Catholicism.
Unlike Spanish missionaries in New Mexico, they allowed Christian Indians to retain a high degree of independence and much of their traditional social structure.
The French brought changes to Indian life.
The spread of disease followed contact with Europeans.
Participation in the fur trade brought natives into the burgeoning Atlantic economy, introducing new goods and transforming hunting from a search for food into a quest for commodities.
Europeans were swept into rivalries with Indians.
Many of the people of southern Ontario and upper New York State converted to Catholicism after forming a trading alliance with the French.
The tribe was almost wiped out in a series of attacks by the Dutch in the 1640s.
After eight years of Spanish rule, the disorder had time to grow and no one gave it a thought.
The plague went to San Juan, Jamaica, Cuba and the rest of the hemisphere.
Josephe was a Spanish-speaking Indian who was questioned by a royal attorney in Mexico City.
Spanish settlers temporarily left present-day New Mexico due to the revolt of the Indian population in 1680.
He said that the Indian rebels had renunciation of the law of God and disobedience to his Majesty due to ill treatment and injuries received from Spanish authorities.
The reason why the apostates burned the images, churches, and things pertaining to divine worship, making a mockery and trophy of them, killing the priests and doing the other things they did, has come to his notice during the time that he has been here.
They washed away the water of baptism by burning the temples and images, crosses and rosaries, and they all went to bathe in the rivers.
In the center of the plaza, on the four sides, there were small enclosures of stone where they could offer flour, feathers, and the seed of a local plant.
The names of Jesus and Mary should not be used.
He has seen many houses of idolatry that have been built, and he has also danced the dance of the cachina, which is part of a traditional Indian religious ceremony.
He replied to the question.
In New France, there was cultural exchange between colonial and native populations.
Indians and whites encountered each other for many years on a basis of relative equality on the "middle ground" of the Great Lakes region in French America.
The children of marriages between Indian women and French traders became guides, traders, and interpreters.
The French were willing to accept Indians as part of their society.
Indians were encouraged to speak French and use the European division of labor between men and women.
Indians who converted to Catholicism were given full citizenship.
French settlers were more attracted to the "free" life of the Indians than natives were.
Henry Hudson, an Englishman employed by the Dutch East India Company, sailed into New York Harbor in 1609 to look for a Northwest Passage to Asia.
Hudson and his crew were the first Europeans to sail up the river.
Hudson encountered abundant fur-bearing animals and Native Americans who were willing to trade furs for European goods, even though he did not find a route to Asia.
He planted the seeds for New York City when he claimed the area for the Netherlands.
Dutch traders established an outpost at Fort Orange in 1614.
The Dutch West India Company settled on Manhattan Island after being awarded a monopoly of Dutch trade with America.
The rise of the Dutch overseas empire was a small part of these ventures.
Amsterdam was Europe's foremost shipping and banking center in the early 17th century.
The small nation entered a golden age of wealth and achievements in painting, philosophy, and the sciences.
The Dutch invented the joint stock company, a way of pooling financial resources and sharing the risk of maritime voyages, which proved to be central to the development of modern capitalism.
The Netherlands established an empire that spanned from Indonesia to South Africa and the Caribbean, and temporarily wrested control of Brazil from Portugal.
The Dutch were proud of their devotion to liberty.
They enjoyed freedom of the press and private religious practice in the early 17th century.
Even though there was an established church, individuals were free to hold whatever religious beliefs they wanted.
French Huguenots, German Calvinists, and Pilgrims, who wanted to separate from the Church of England, were some of the Protestants who fled to Amsterdam.
Jews fleeing from Spain found refuge there.
Emigrants came to the Netherlands in order to share in the country's prosperity.
In the 17th century, the nation attracted half a million migrants.
The Dutch overseas empire was populated by many newcomers.
Native Americans were good at navigation.
The earliest known engraving of New Amsterdam depicts Dutch and Indian boats in the harbor.
New Netherland was hardly governed in a democratic way.
New Amsterdam was a fortified military outpost controlled by the West India Company.
The basic unit of government at home was not established despite the governor calling on prominent citizens for advice.
The colonists enjoyed more freedom in religious matters than their counterparts in North America.
Their slaves had rights of their own.
The Dutch introduced slaves into New Netherland in the early 17th century after dominating the Atlantic slave trade.
By 1650, the colony's 500 slaves outnumbered those in the Chesapeake.
They were required to pay an annual fee to the company and work for it when called upon, but they were given land to support their families.
Slaves were not employed on large plantations in the West Indies.
The Dutch settlement had more independence for women than other colonies.
Dutch law states that married women retain their separate legal identity.
They could borrow money and own property.
Men used to share property with their wives.
Their wills usually left their possessions to their wives and daughters.
After her husband's death in 1661, Margaret Hardenbroeck expanded her business and became one of the town's richest residents.
New Netherland had a diverse population.
At least eighteen languages were spoken in New Amsterdam as early as the 1630s, including Dutch, Africans, Belgians, English, French, Germans, Irish, and Scandinavians.
These settlers had a wide variety of religions.
The Dutch prided themselves on being tolerant of religion compared to other European nations.
It would be wrong to attribute modern ideas of religious freedom to either the Dutch government or New Netherland.
One of the Protestant national churches to emerge from the Reformation was the Dutch Reformed Church.
The Dutch commitment to freedom of conscience extended to religious devotion in private, not public worship in established churches.
It didn't show a willingness to accept religious diversity.
The West India Company's officials in the colony were expected to defend the Dutch Reformed Church.
Stuyvesant refused to practice his religion openly because he saw such diversity as a threat to a prosperous order.
The Dutch government at home was less restrictive in its religious policies than Stuyvesant was.
In 1654, 23 Jews from Brazil and the Caribbean arrived in New Amsterdam.
Stuyvesant ordered the newcomers to leave because he said they were members of a dishonest race.
The company said that Jews at home had invested a large amount of capital in its shares.
There were challenges to the limits on religious toleration as a result of Stuyvesant's policies.
A 1657 petition by a group of English settlers protesting the governor's order barring Quakers from living in the town of Flushing on Long Island is known as the Flushing Remonstrance.
The Remonstrance had little impact at the time.
Several signers were arrested for disobeying Stuyvesant.
The Dutch dealt with religious pluralism in a different way than other New World empires.
As long as it did not involve open and public worship, religious dissent was often grudgingly accepted.
No one in New Netherland was forced to attend the official church, nor was anyone executed for holding the wrong religious beliefs.
The Dutch West India Company tried to lure settlers to North America by promising them free land and cheap livestock after six years of labor.
It surrendered its monopoly on the fur trade and opened it to all comers.
Many settlers did not respect the company's authority and were lured by an imaginary liberty.
Tenants will be transported for agricultural labor.
The patroon had to purchase a title to the land from Indians, but he also had the right to 10 percent of his tenants' annual income and complete authority over law enforcement within his domain.
Kiliaen van Rensselaer, who acquired some 700,000 acres in the Hudson Valley, became a going concern.
His family's autocratic rule over the tenants, as well as its efforts to extend its domain to include lands settled by New Englanders who claimed that they owned their farms, would inspire sporadic uprisings into the mid-nineteenth century.
The Netherlands sent 1 million people overseas during the 17th century to govern their colonies.
Few made their way to North America.
The European population of New Netherland was 9000 by the mid-1660s.
The Dutch empire had a small backwater called New Netherland.
The outpost was established in 1638 by a group of Dutch merchants.
They claimed to be operating under the Swedish flag and called their settlement New Sweden.
The colony was seized by New Netherland in 1655.
A map of the New World from an illuminated manuscript produced in Le Havre, France, in 1613 depicts the French ambition to dominate North America.
The precision of the coastline is unusual for maps of this era.
The Dutch came to North America to trade.
They wanted to make money from the land, not settle it.
The Dutch decided to treat the native inhabitants better because of the Black Legend of Spanish brutality.
After winning their independence from Spain, many Dutch identified with American Indians as victims of Spanish oppression.
Dutch authorities recognized Indian sovereignty over the land and forbade settlement until it had been purchased.
They required tribes to make payments to the colonial authorities.
New Netherland was not free of conflict with the Indians near the coast.
The war that resulted in the deaths of 1,000 Indians and more than 200 was sparked by the expansionist ambitions of Governor William Kieft, who in the 1640s began seizing fertile farmland from the nearby Algonquian Indians.
The Dutch established friendly commercial and diplomatic relations with the Confederacy of the upper Hudson Valley.
The "middle ground" of the Great Lakes region in New France was one of many such places.
Overlapping claims to authority abounded, and hybrid cultures developed, as the boundaries between empires and native peoples shifted constantly.
The power of native peoples was weakened as Europeans consolidated their control.
At the edges of empire, power was always unstable and cultural interactions at the local level were different.
European conquest was not a simple story of expanding domination over empty space or powerless peoples, but of a constant struggle to establish authority.
The Spanish, French, and Dutch empires fought each other for dominance in various parts of the continent, and Indians often wielded both economic and political power, pitting European empires against each other.
The boundaries of the empires were challenged by traders.
People of European and Indian descent married each other.
European nations had established settlements in the New World before the planting of English colonies in North America.
The Spanish, French, and Dutch empires had some similarities.
Christianity, new forms of technology and learning, new legal systems and family relations, and new forms of economic enterprise and wealth creation were brought by all.
savage warfare and widespread disease were brought by them.
The empires were aware of each other's existence.
They studied and borrowed from each other.
Dreams of freedom for Indians, for settlers, for the entire world through the spread of Christianity-inspired and justified colonization--from the beginning.
England entered the struggle for empire in North America at the beginning of the 17th century.
Virginia and Pennsylvania were largely peopled in the 17th and 18th centuries by English and German indentured servants.
A place where no group of people have complete political control or cultural dominance.
Europeans were their diversity.
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The site of present-day Mexico City was built on marshy islands on the western side of Lake Tetzcoco.
The Spanish conquered the mexican people in 1519-1528.
Between 1450 and 1600, an alliance of the Iroquois tribes used their combined strength to force Europeans to work with them in the fur trade and to wage war across eastern North America.
The reconquest of Spain from the Moors was completed in 1492.
The Spanish term for "conquerors" was applied to Spanish and Portuguese soldiers who conquered lands held by indigenous peoples in central and southern America as well as the current states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.
Columbus's voyages in 1492 started the flow of goods and people.
People who were born in the New World of European ancestry.
Indian laborers worked on a large-scale farm in the Spanish New World empire.