In the Hall of Mirrors at the palace of Versailles, a new German Empire was proclaimed.
The Kaiser was created by the constitution of the North German Confederation.
Two areas on Germany's southwest border that were important to the future defense of the new German Reich were annexed by Bismarck.
He imposed an indemnity of 5 billion gold Francs on France for starting the war.
After the first Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, France was demanded a huge sum.
Italy took over the papal lands after the French were moved to the northern front in France.
The pope was left a small enclave in Rome, the residence of popes thereafter.
Paris was surrounded by people.
As a final peace was being negotiated, France's capital city would be the scene of uprisings and civil war, to be described in Chapter 8.
See the broader diplomatic background to the unification of Italy and Germany.
is one of the relevant biographies of the period.
The formation of new Italian and German nation-states was one of the more prominent developments of the two to three decades after the revolutions of 1848.
Austria, Russia, and Turkey were the most modernized of the multinational empires.
The designs of Cavour and Napoleon III led to the downfall of the Habsburg Empire in the 1850s and 1860s.
If the nationalists continued to spread, the empire was going to break.
The empire survived until the end of World War I.
It was not the case that all of the nationalities of the Habsburg Empire wanted to establish their own nation-state.
The Austroslavs looked for more respect for their cultures and languages in a liberalized empire.
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The Russians to the east and the Germans to the west are vulnerable to the Mid-CENTURY CONSOLIDATION.
Poland's partition was the worst-case scenario that other Slavs kept in mind.
The Habsburg Empire's many Slavic peoples were too scattered and diverse in their identities to contemplate a modern nation-state.
Most of the positions at the top of the empire were occupied by German-speakers.
The situation was not nationalistic in the sense of looking to an integral nation-state, but it still satisfied the German national feeling.
German nation-state, the dominant Germans of the Habsburg Empire, tended to reestablish their identity as the ruling elite, to a sense that they had a higher mission in providing the benefits of German rule and civilization to others.
Many non-Germans were offended by that mentality, but it wasn't as much of a problem as twenty-first-century readers might think.
The Slovenes, a small South-Slavic group along the north of the Adriatic Sea, were known to be especially favorable to German culture and language.
While retaining a sense of Jewish ethnic and religious difference, a large and growing percentage of the Jewish population embraced both German language and culture.
The more secular and urbanized of the Jews in the Habsburg Empire, especially in its western, urbanized areas, accepted the belief that German language and culture was the most important form of contemporary civilization.
Economic upward mobility and social respectability were achieved through the use of German language and culture.
The Emperor gradually gained the respect and affection of a significant part of the population, especially by that part that he came to call "my Jews" (condescending, no doubt, but not seen as offensive by most Jews).
He was a limited man, living in a world of haughty aristocracy and courtly pomp that was repelled by modern times.
He did not attract the kind of suspicion and hostility that the tsars of his day did.
The fact that the Jews didn't have any territory that could be used to break away from the empire was appreciated.
The Jewish population was modernizing and innovative, which contributed to the empire's productivity in ways that few other ethnic groups did.
The Habsburg Germans' sense of mission translated into a radical centralization of the power of the state using German language and efficiency.
Even though popular participation was not encouraged, there was a "liberal" or at least progressive aspect to that.
The abolition of serfdom in the 19th century needed a strong hand by state officials because of the resistance from large landlords and former beneficiaries.
The building of railroads was sponsored by the state.
A common language of commerce, lingua franca, could be seen as an important part of economic modernization.
After 1919, the free-trade area of the empire was broken into a number of small and economically important areas.
In the Hungarian half of the empire, there was a strong opposition to the idea of German rule, which resulted in the creation of an independent state in 1848.
Like the Germans in the western half, they were the top ethnic or language group in the eastern half, but they constituted less than a majority in the Kingdom of Hungary.
In the eastern half of the empire, there were pockets of German-speaking people.
There were passages in Herder that suggested that the Magyars might disappear in the future.