They might wonder what causes Criteria of Abnormality such abnormal behaviors.
We begin the discussion with a description of how we label abnormal behaviors.
Mood disorders are extreme examples of models of abnormal behavior.
The discussion of biological processes will help us understand The Labeling Issue of behavior.
Learning plays a role in the development of some forms of abnormal behavior.
Disorders can be caused by a combination of factors within and outside the person.
This is important.
The way Subtypes of Schizophrenia are perceived and responded to by other people are influenced by the criteria we use to define abnormal behaviors.
The way we define abnormality is related to Causes of Schizophrenia.
Criteria have been used to distinguish between normal and abnormal Sexual Disorders behaviors.
Sometimes we rely on more than one criterion.
Statistical rarity, interference with normal functioning, and personal distress are some of the criteria used for distinguishing between normal and abnormal behaviors.
Determining how often the behavior occurs in the population is a way to define abnormal behavior.
A behavior that is abnormal doesn't happen very often.
It is acceptable and desirable to earn straight As or write a best-selling novel.
Statistical rarity is not a good indicator of what we should call abnormal.
That degree Term used to describe behaviors of anxiety is not functional because it affects other people who depend on you and interfere with daily activities.
A behavior that is not functioning is considered abnormal.
If their behavior is upsetting, confusing, or distracts them, they may be suffering from a psychological disorder.
The per sonal distress criterion is useful in cases where the psychological disorder is uncomfortable.
Personal distress doesn't always correlate with abnormal behavior.
The woman was not distressed by her behavior and wanted to be left alone.
According to the criterion of personal distress, her behavior wouldn't be considered abnormal; however, applying the criterion of statistical rarity would lead us to judge her behavior as abnormal.
The behaviors that are acceptable for group members are decided by all social groups.
Norms may be recorded as laws.
Many social norms are not written, but they still influence our behavior and opinions about others.
Many people consider polite language such as "Excuse me" or "Thank you" to be an essential part of functioning on a daily basis and personal distress.
Depending on behaviors.
They are against the norm.
Norms change over time.
Social norms definitions of abnormality are culturally variable because of different cultural groups.
We use a number of criteria to determine if a person is displaying abnormal behavior.
The dress and behavior of these football fans would be judged abnormal.
Many of the people in the stands would judge the fans to be normal and even models to be imitated.
When making such judgements, keep the following points in mind.
Normality and abnormality are degrees of difference on a continuum, the point at which normal behavior becomes abnormal depends on how you define mality.
We make a value judgment when we see a behavior as abnormal.
The person who is judged may not accept your perspective.
The judgments may change over time with social or cultural standards.
On June 20, 2001, Yates drowned her five young children and then called her husband at work, asking him to come home.
Yates was under the care of a psychiatrist.
A jury found her guilty of having a child in March 2002.
There was testimony about her mental illness, but she was not guilty of killing her five agreement over whether she was insane under Texas law.
She was sane when she committed the crime, according to the jury.
She was sentenced to life in prison.
On January 6, 2005, the Texas Court of Appeals overturned the conviction and ordered a new trial.
Yates was found not guilty by reason of insanity in the re trial.
She was treated in Kerrville, Texas, and is now confined to a mental hospital.
The Yates decision has a distinction between describ conviction and holding someone responsible for the actions of others, because Yates drowned her children.
A witness is suppose.
The court of appeals ordered a new trial after the child found the keys to the family car and drove it.
A 4-year-old child is insane.
Many people held strong opinions about the insanity plea before the Yates trial.
The Yates case showed the media's ability to provide information about the insanity defense.
The deaths of the five children and scenes of the trial were covered by millions of Americans.
The majority of newspaper stories dealing with former mental patients focus on violent crime.
Images of defendants like Jeffrey Dahmer are often evoked in media portrayals.
The public thinks that 42% of felony indictments involve an insanity plea and that the majority of those pleas result in acquittal.
One million felony indictments found that insanity pleas were used in less than 1% of the cases, and only 25% of those pleas were successful.
The 1% used this plea.
The public perception of the insanity plea is a far cry from these figures.
The determination of insanity is a legal decision made by a judge or jury rather than a psychological or psychiatric one, although psychologists and psychiatrists often offer testimony to the court in insanity cases.
Only 15% of insanity verdicts occur in murder cases, and assault is the most frequent crime for which defendants plead not guilty by reason of insanity.
Most defendants who are ruled insane have a history of serious psychological disorders.
People convicted of similar crimes spend less time in confinement than defendants who are judged insane.
The data shows that the insanity plea is not a legal loophole used by defendants to escape punishment.
Many people believed that abnormal behaviors occurred when a person was possessed by demons.
People who behaved in strange ways were often subjected to brutal treatments to drive the demons out.
One way to understand disorders was provided by the belief in supernatural phenomena.
General views of what causes abnormal behaviors are often adopted by psychologists in their efforts to identify and explain those behaviors.
At the end of the 18th century, physicians began to note the symptoms of their patients.
A number of psychological disorders are related to elevated or reduced levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain.
There is increasing evidence that heredity plays a significant role in the development of psychological disorders.
A warning that the ego is about to be overwhelmed by conflict is what causes anxiety disorders.
The view that psychological we learn both normal and abnormal behaviors through the principles of classical disorders are learned behaviors that tioning, operant conditioning, and modeling.
The view that emphasizes the importance of society and culture in to the prevalence of psychological disorders, and rates of psychological disorders are causing psychological disorders influenced by socioeconomic status.
This syndrome is similar to social phobias, which are concerns related to public scrutiny or possible embarrassment.
Some Native American people believe they can hear the voice of a dead person when the spirit travels to the afterworld.
The symptoms of this brief-duration syndrome include shout ing uncontrollably, bursting into tears, trembling, heat in the chest rising into the head, verbal or physical aggression, and seizure-like or fainting episodes.
News of the death of a close relative or witnessing an accident can cause symptoms of typi cally.
Someone unfamiliar with the cultures in which it was developed would find it hard to understand.
Many disorders have multiple causes and the use of several models is likely to advance our understanding.
Some people may have a tendency to exhibit strong autonomic reactions, which can lead to a number of disorders.
Whether a disorder develops depends on psychological and social factors.
Some people may begin questioning their ability to cope if they are exposed to a lot of stress.
Growing up in a family that reacts to stress by presenting physical symptoms can lead an individual to report similar symptoms.
You use different sides.
You should ask another student an example.
The process of recognizability is an example of another student naming a disorder using an existing classification system.
Predicting is a major purpose of diagnosis.
Success in making predictions depends on the availability of a disorder type.
There are more than 200 psychological disorders listed in the current manual.
The diagnostic manual was revised because diagnoses based on the cat egories listed in earlier editions were not reliable.
Different mental health professionals who interviewed the same patient disagreed on the diagno sis.
Rules for making diagnoses were added to the revised diagnostic manual.
The number, severity, and duration of symptoms are spelled out in the manual.
Disorders such as mental retardation and attention infancy are usually first diagnosed before adulthood.
Delirium, dementia, and amnestic significant cognitive deficits are caused by a medical condition or substance use disorders.
Paranoid schizophrenia is an example.
Mood swings between the two can range from sad to happy.
There are patterns of behavior that are resistant to treatment and lead to distress or impairment.
Our perception is influenced by the setting and the labels we use.
This classic piece of research was carried out by seven colleagues.
They reported hearing voices when they entered mental hospitals.
They answered all the questions honestly.
They were hospitalized for an average of 19 days and were given a combined total of more than 2,000 pills, which they did not swallow.
The research generated controversy.
Critics said that the study was invalid because patients don't walk into hospitals with fake symptoms.
The pseudopatients' experiences show how labels such as "schizophrenia" can affect our perception of behavior.
When the label "schizophrenic" was applied to the pseudopatients, it influenced the staff's per ceptions of them.
Normal behaviors were seen as abnormal by that label.
The pseudo patients wrote notes about their experiences in the hospital.
The hospital staff thought the writing was a symptom of schizophrenia.
Several real patients recognized the pseudopa tients as normal people who were collecting information about life in a mental hospi tal.
The staff members' reactions were different.
A pseudo patient might say, "Pardon me, Dr.
Good morning, Dave.
Then the staff member would leave.
Seven people with active symptoms of schizo phrenia were the subject of a study that had a different result.
Six of the seven people were denied treatment because of budget reductions and managed care restrictions.
Diagnostic labels can be a double sword according to the results.
Diagnostic labels can help advance our knowledge about the causes of disorders and aid in making treatment decisions, but they can also create a stigma that can be difficult to overcome when looking for housing or a job.
Our responses to people labeled as having a psychological disorder are often different from our responses to other people.
It is difficult to collect accurate information about the number of people who experience psychological disorders in a given population, just as it is difficult to diagnose cases of abnormal behavior.
Many people who suffer from these disorders don't seek treatment, others don't seek help from mental health professionals, and so are not counted among those who have psychological disorders.
Estimates of the prevalence of these disorders in the general population are provided by several major surveys.
If 500 people in a population of 10,000 had the flu in the past six months, the six-month prevalence would be 5%.
The incidence of flu in our population of 10,000 would be 1% if there were 100 new cases this year.
The face-to-face survey can be used to estimate the number of people with psychological disorders.
Two sur veys of more than 27,000 respondents used this method.
The estimates represent the percentage of the population who have symptoms that interfere with their functioning.
Twenty percent of respondents reported significant psychological disorders within a year before the interview.
There are many psychological disorders that occur with other disorders.
The source is based on Narrow et al.
Treatment planning can be affected by the existence of several disorders in a person.
Individuals with multiple diagnoses have a more chronic history of disorders, have more health problems, and experience more impairment than individuals with a single diagnosis.
Most people with psychological disorders don't get treatment.
The number of days individuals are unable to carry out their usual activities or experience restrictions in their social or occupational roles is associated with psychological disorders.
Behavior is abnormal when our interpretation of events and our beliefs are not regular.
Many people suffer from more than one psychological disorder.
The students paid attention to the cases.
If he had a mental disorder at the time he committed the cases, he is not guilty by reason of insanity.
If the iQ is lower than aver, it is life threatening.
Deb thought she was going crazy or about to die.
We focus on specific types or categories of psycho logical disorders in this and the following sections.
We might list some symptoms you may see in yourself.
You may conclude that you have one or more of the disorders discussed in this chapter if you believe that you have the diseases covered in your textbooks and courses.
Don't worry about this tendency to diagnose yourself, and be aware of it.
Do not hesitate to talk to a teacher, a counselor, or a therapist if you have troubling symptoms.
They can help you determine if you need treatment for your symptoms.
The first part of this section describes disorders related to anxiety.
People with anxiety disorders are usually not hospitalized.
Their symptoms can be disturbing and can interfere with day-to-day living.
We will look at the somatoform and dissociative disorders after discussing the anxiety disorders.
It is normal for anxiety to be at moderate levels.
There are three categories of indicators.
The signs of a rapid heart rate and dry mouth are indicative of a general feeling of apprehension.
"I'll make a fool of myself when I give my speech" are examples of cognitive signs that can fuel anxiety.
It is difficult to overcome a fear of danger because it is out of proportion to the real danger.
Imagine if a figure of speech such as "cut it out" made you faint.
Should your daughter be afraid of cats, you may want to send her into a store to scout around and sound difficult, should the individual be all-clear before you can enter.
Your daughter has been a "cat scout" since she was 5 years old.
Most people with agoraphobia are women who are afraid of being seen in public places or situations where they could be seen incapacitating symptoms such as dizziness or vomiting.
The prevalence rates of some social and specific phobias are shown in Figure 12-2.
People with specific phobias rarely seek treatment for their anxiety disorders.
There are only a few phobias associated with fainting.
According to the study of Albert, classical con ditioning can be used to learn phobias.
When a white rat becomes associated with a loud noise, it may result in a fear of rats.
Through this association, the neutralStimulus becomes a fearedStimulus, that is, it is now conditionedStimulus.
Few people who fear mice or snakes have had bad experiences with them.
They might have seen other people react to fear fully in the presence of these stimuli, or they might have heard about the terrible things animals might do to humans.
This type of modeling can be beneficial when it allows us to learn reasonable fears without being exposed to dangerous objects; still, it can lead us to fear stimuli simply because we have been exposed to the fears of others.
We met Deb at the beginning of the section.
Chapter tWeLVe is driving.
There are other anxiety disorders, depression, substance abuse, and personality disorders that are related to panic disorder.
It is possible that the experience of panic attacks may have caused her to develop agoraphobia.
People with panic disorders are not as lucky as people with phobias.
A panic attack can strike out of the blue, so victims can of a panic attack be seen not hiding.
Many victims of agoraphobia prefer to remain in their homes, where they will not be embarrassed if they experience a panic in her forehead.
Between 15% and 30% of people have had at least one panic attack.
The way people interpret their symptoms is a key factor.
When bodily sensations of anxiety are misinterpreted as signs of impending disaster, panic attacks occur.
People who suffer from panic disorder were given ambiguous written scenarios that could be interpreted as threatening or not threatening.
They might read a scenario in which they carried out routine activities, some of which involved mild exertion that was associated with a faster heart rate.
People with panic disorder tend to think of a heart attack when they think of increased heart rate.
The most severe anxiety disorder interprets them as indicators of serious physical problems.
This interpretation makes them more aware of physical signs in the future and increases their arousal during and after an attack.
A very common disorder with an estimated lifetime prevalence of almost 6% is chronically high level of anxiety.
They exhibit a constant need for more evi dence before rendering a decision because of their low tolerance for uncertainty.
The body pays a price when it's worried, such as racing heart, dry mouth, and upset stom ach.
According to epidemiological research, GAD occurs twice as often in women as in men.
This disor der is free floating because it is not brought on by a specific stimuli.
Increased vulnerability to other disor ders, especially depression, as well as increasing the use of health care services may be caused by GAD.
GAD, along with some other anxiety disorders, may be caused by low levels of the neu rotransmitter GABA.
When there is a high level of nerve impulses in the brain, anxiety can occur.
The result can be what we call anxiety, because elevated levels of GABA block this neurological activity.
Most people are like that.
Some people are dominated by their thoughts.
Some people feel they must do something to get rid of or reduce their occurrence because of the battle in the mind.
The people may check the stove or windows on a daily basis.
A clerk spent up to 2 hours a day checking her house for electrical appliances, doors, and windows before she was able to leave.
Not performing these rituals leads to an increase in anxiety.
Culture and religion have an influence on the presentation of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The fear of leprosy in Africa is a culturally specific obsessive fear.
obsessive fears of disease are the focus of historical shifts.
Twenty years ago, fears about sexually transmitted diseases were more focused on AIDS.
Compulsive gambling thoughts, impulses, or images are often associated with some degree of pleasure.
The compulsions in OCD are irrational and do not give rise to pleasure.
Fear of harming oneself or others is one of the most common obsessions.
Checking objects is one of the most common compulsions.
glenda frequently experiences the urge to stab her children with a butcher knife.
Despite the fact that his neighbor has never done anything to harm him nor have they exchanged a cross word, forty-two year old rob is still thinking about attacking him with a chainsaw.
Fourteen-year-old alice has vivid images of poking out her eyes with knitting needles.
A sixteen-year-old girl washes her hands.
John is so unsure of what he has written that he reads emails over and over.
The same routine is used by an eighteen-year old student.
The disorder is more common among women than it is among men.
There is no difference in the rates of OCD between males and females across the lifespan.
Depression, eating disorders, substance abuse, and other anxiety disorders can accompany the disorder.
Charles has spent hours in the shower removing sticky substance from his body.
His mother joined his rituals because he would be miserable if he didn't.
She used alcohol to clean household objects.
Charles was wary of the required test because a sticky paste would be used to attach the electrodes, even though he and his mother heard about a treat ment program.
He said it was a kind of disease.
Behavioral psychologists believe that compulsions reduce anxiety.
Operant conditioning has been associated with anxiety reduction.
Charles was trying to remove a sticky substance from his body.
His anxiety was reduced after each shower.
The reduction in anxiety is an example of an operant conditioning principle.
If you want to read further, identify that principle.
The behavior that is being reinforced should be identified.
Charles was able to reduce his anxiety by showering.
The showering behavior was reinforced by anxiety reduction in this sequence.
Charles is more likely to take showers in the future.
Twins are more likely to share the same disorder.
The findings point to an inherited biological predisposition, which may involve abnormal levels of a neurotransmitter or abnormal functioning of certain parts of the brain.
Serotonin has been implicated in OCD because it's useful in treating the condition.
This increased activity may be related to the obsessions or just reflect them; remember that the frontal lobes are involved in planning and thinking, an important component of obses sive-compulsive behavior.
The role of the basal ganglia in motor movement may be implicated in compulsions.
According to multiple studies, between 40 to 60 percent of the general population has experienced or witnessed a traumatic event, although only 5 to 10 percent will meet the criteria for post traumatic stress disorder in their lives.
It seems that people who have been held and tortured for long periods of time are more likely to develop post traumatic stress disorder than people who have only been in an automobile accident.
The symptoms of and criteria for post traumatic stress disorder include: repeated reexpe a reaction to a traumatic or rience of the event, persistent avoidance of stimuli life-threatening situation that is characterized by repeated associated with the event, and Different strengths and combinations of symptoms can causePTSD to be displayed differently in different individuals.
If embarrassing symptoms occur suddenly, it might be difficult to escape from places such as shopping malls or public transportation.
Being in situations in which one might be scrutinized is related to fear.
Animals, the natural environment, and blood-injection-injury are some of the phobias related to them.
There is concern about the seriousness of the attacks, which are often viewed as similar to heart attacks, as well as the possibility of future attacks.
The study chart should provide a summary of the anxiety disorders.
Somatoform disorders affect parts of the body that are not controlled by the central nervous system.