15 -- Part 2: Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
If a ruler uses brutality, lying, manipulation, and other means to preserve the state, he should not do anything that could cause the popu lace to turn against him.
It is safer for the prince to be feared than it is to be loved, according to Machiavelli.
Students from northern Europe went to Italy in the last quarter of the 15th century to learn about humanism.
Human cultures should be combined.
Desiderius Erasmus was better known than Thomas More.
His fame was based on his knowledge of Greek and the Bible.
Education was the key to moral and intellectual improvement, and true Christianity was an inner attitude of the spirit, not a set of outward actions.
The impact of the ideas of Petrarch and Erasmus was different because of the printing press with metal type.
While Petrarch's works spread slowly from person to person by hand copying, Erasmus's works spread quickly through printing, in which hundreds or thousands of identical copies could be made in a short time.
The first metal type was developed in Korea in the 13th century.
In the middle of the fifteenth century, printing with metal type was independently developed in Germany.
The metal stamps used to mark signs on jewelry were transformed into type that could be covered with ink and used to mark symbols onto a page.
The printing revo lution was enabled by the ready availability of paper, which was made using techniques that had originated in China and spread from Muslim Spain to the rest of Europe.
The effects of the invention were felt over time.
The publication of Gutenberg's Bible of 1456 brought about radical changes.
Between the invention of writing and 1456, there were more books produced in the West than in Europe, but historians think there were between 8 and 20 milion books printed in Europe between 1456 and 1500.
The private and public lives of Europeans were changed by printing.
Government and church leaders used to worry about printing.
They printed laws, declarations of war, battle accounts, and propaganda, but they also tried to ban books and authors they thought were wrong.
These efforts were not very effective.
Printing made it possible for people to read the same books so that they could discuss the ideas in them.
Most of the earliest books and pamphlets dealt with religious topics, but printers produced anything that would sell.
They published both history and pornography because illustrations increased a book's sales.
Public events and "wonders" such as comets and two-headed calves could be experienced by staying at home with single-page broadsides and flysheets.
The gap between the written and oral cultures was bridged with the use of print.
Many people could not read Latin, so printers put out works in other languages.
The plays in these languages were popular all over the world.
The works of William Shakespeare were popular in London.
Wealthy merchants, bankers, popes, and princes commissioned art to honor themselves and their families in Renaissance Italy.
Many historians see the Renaissance as the beginning of the idea of the artist as genius because of patronage.
In the Middle Ages, people believed that only God created and that artistic originality was not valued.
Renaissance artists thought that a work of art was the deliberate creation of a unique personality, of an individual who overcame traditions, rules, and theories.
Like al Renaissance artists, Michelangelo used patrons as his clients.
A statue of the Old Testament hero David will be displayed in the city's main square.
The statue came to symbolize the republic of Florence standing up to its larger and more powerful enemies, because Michelangelo depicted David anticipating his fight against the giant.
Classical themes and motifs, such as the lives and loves of pagan gods and goddesses, became more popular in painting and sculpture as the fifteenth century advanced, with the fa cial features of the gods sometimes modeled on.
Classical styles influenced architecture, as architects designed build ings that featured carefully proportioned arches and domes modeled on the structures of ancient Rome.
The individual portrait was a genre in Renaissance art.
Renaissance portraits showed human ideals in a more realistic style than medieval painting and sculpture did.
Donatello revived the classical figure with its balance and self-awareness.
Female grace and beauty were portrayed in Leonardo da Vinci's paintings.
The most sought after artist in Europe is Raphael Sanzio, a Florentine artist who painted hundreds of portraits and devotional images in his short life.
The center of Renaissance art shifted from Florence to Rome because wealthy cardinals and popes wanted to show their power and piety.
Michelangelo Buonarroti went to Rome from Florence about 1500 to begin the series of statues, paintings, and architectural projects that earned him an international reputation.
Between 1508 and 1512 he painted frescoes on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.
Renaissance artists were expected to be educated in proper artistic techniques and style.
In Italy and northern Europe, most piring artists were educated in the workshops of older artists.
The formal academies were established to train artists.
Similar to universities, artistic workshops and acade mies were male-only settings.
Women who became known as painters during the Renaissance were trained by their artist fathers and often stopped painting when they married.
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