Chapter 24 -- Part 1: Ideologies of Change in Europe
After World War I, women in many countries gained the right to vote.
The political and economic revolutions of the late 18th and early 19th century left a legacy of unfulfilled hopes and dreams for many Europeans.
Over the course of the nineteenth century, these ambitions would play out with unpredictable and tumultuous consequences.
The powers that defeated Napoleon united under a revived conservatism to stamp out the spread of liberal and democratic reforms.
The unfinished revolutions made possible political and social innovations that were difficult to contain.
Liberalism, nationalism, and socialism emerged to oppose conservatism in politics.
All played important roles in the political and social battles of the era and the great popular upheaval that swept across Europe in the revolutions of 1848.
The failed revolutions gave way to more sober nation building in the 1860s.
The challenges of the emerging urban society were dealt with effectively by European political leaders and middle-class nationalists.
Mass identification with a nation-state that was responsive to the needs of its people was one way they did so.
The triumph of nationalism promoted bitter rivalries between states and peoples, spurred a second wave of imperialism, and in the twentieth century brought an era of tragic global conflict.
The Quadruple Alliance, made up of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain, was formed after they defeated Napoleon.
They created a peace settlement that lasted fifty years without major warfare in Europe.
They wanted to restore order and limit the spread of revolutionary ideas.
After the defeat of France in 1814-1815, a meeting of the Quadruple Alliance was held to create a peace settlement.
Despite the congress's success on the diplomatic front, many observers were frustrated by the high-handed dictates of the Great Powers and their refusal to adopt social reforms.
Critics tried to harness the ideas of the revolutionary age to new political movements.
Traditional values and institutions, including hereditary monarchy and a strong landowning aristocracy, were rejected by many.
The radicals tried to convince society to act on their ideas.
Traditional values and institutions, including hereditary monarchy and a strong landowning aristocracy, were stressed in a political philosophy.
The Quadruple Alliance, along with representatives of minor powers, met together at the Congress of Vienna and decided to use strong defensive measures against France.
Prussia received more territory along France's eastern border to be a "sentinel on the Rhine" against French aggression.
The neutrality of certain territories was recognized by the congress as a way of creating buffer zones between hostile states.
France's boundaries were returned to them by the first Peace of Paris, which was larger than those of 1789.
After Napoleon's brief return to power, France did not have to give up a lot of territory or pay a lot of money.
The rulers of Europe are at the Congress of Vienna in a political cartoon.
The English representative holds a set of scales loaded with gold coins, a reference to the English role in financing the allies, as Napoleon removes the section with France on it.
The allies were motivated by self interest and traditional ideas about the balance of power.
Ensuring the internal stability of France was one of the measures required.
To maintain peace in Europe, the Quadruple Alliance members agreed to meet periodically to discuss their common interests.
The "congress system" it inaugurated lasted long into the nineteenth century.
The interests of smaller states and peoples within multiethnic states were ignored by the congress leaders.
The question of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire was left aside.
The post-1815 order was in serious danger with the rise of nationalism.
The leading powers of the congress, led by Britain, issued a declaration condemning the slave trade and called on European states to begin the process of abolition.
Austria, Prussia, and Russia formed the Holy Alliance in order to destroy the ideas and politics of the revolutionary era.
The German Confederation of thirty-eight independent German states was dominated by Metternich's policies.
The Karlsbad Decrees were issued by Metternich in 1819.
The member states were required to root out radical ideas in their universities and newspapers, and a permanent committee was established to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations.
The five Great Powers of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France dominated international politics after Napoleon's defeat.
Compare the geographical strengths and weaknesses of each Great Power.
Metternich believed that strong governments were needed to protect society from its worst instincts.
He blamed liberals for stirring up the lower classes, which he believed wanted nothing more than peace and quiet.
Metternich was against nationalism, the idea that each national group had a right to establish its own independent government.
The Austrian Empire was dominated by Germans but also contained many other national groups.
The multinational state was both strong and weak.
It was strong because of its large population and vast territories, but weak because of its many dissatisfied nationalities.
Austria could not accommodate liberalism and nationalism, so Metternich opposed both of them.
Russia and the Ottoman Empire supported Metternich's antinationalist efforts.
Liberty and equality were the principal ideas of the time.
In the American Revolution and in the French and Latin American Revolutions, liberalism demanded representative government and equality before the law.
The idea of liberty included freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
In Europe only France and Great Britain had realized much of the liberal program in the 19th century.
Liberals demanded representative government and equality before the law, as well as individual freedoms such as freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and freedom from arbitrary arrest, in a philosophy of equality and liberty.
Liberalism faced more radical competitors in the early 19th century.
Liberalism's economic principles called for unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
The doctrine of laissez faire was a part of this philosophy.
Economic liberalism advocates unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
Liberal political ideals became associated with narrow class interests in the early 19th century.
Liberals generally wanted property qualifications attached to the right to vote and to serve in Parliament, even though they favored a representative government.
Some intellectuals and foes of conservatism felt that liberalism did not go far enough as the middle class became more identified with liberalism.
They wanted to replace monarchical rule with republics, for democracy through universal male speach, and for greater economic and social equality.
The democrats and republicans were more radical than the liberals, and they were willing to use violence to achieve their goals.
Liberals and republicans could only join forces against conservatives at a certain point.
Nationalism was a radical new ideology that emerged after 1816 and was destined to have an enormous influence on the modern world.
The early advocates of the "national idea" argued that the members of an ethnic group had their own spirit and culture, which were reflected in a common language, history, and territory.
As local dialects abounded, historical memory divided the inhabitants of the different states as much as it unified them, and a variety of ethnic groups shared the territory of most states.
The idea that each people had their own spirit and culture, which could be seen in a common language and history, could serve as the basis for an independent political state.
Patriotic nationalism swept European populations in the late 19th and early 20th century.
This attitude was encouraged by printed images such as this trading card that showed the words and music for the new German national anthem, flanked by a female embodiment of the new nation and a pair of happy peasants in folkloric dress.
European nationalists wanted to make the territory of each person coincide with the boundaries of an independent nation-state.
When Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire were too small, or when the Italian peninsula and the German Confederation were too large, nationalism exploded in central and eastern Europe.
Most people who believed in nationalism between 1816 and 1850 also believed in liberalism or radical democratic republicanism.
The linking of these two concepts was due to a common faith in the creativity and nobility of the people.
The people were seen as the ultimate source of good government.
They agreed that the benefits of self-government would only be possible if the people were united by common traditions.
Individual liberty and love of a free nation are related.
European nationalism's main thrust was liberal and democratic, but below the surface there were ideas of national superiority and national mission.
The doctrine of socialism began in France.
French socialists were disappointed in the outcome of the French Revolution.
They were alarmed by the rise of laissez faire and the emergence of modern industry, which they saw as fostering inequality and selfishness.
They believed there was an urgent need for a reorganization of society to establish cooperation and a new sense of community.
Key ideas of a radical political doctrine that opposed individualism and advocated cooperation and a sense of community were economic planning, greater economic equality, and state regulation of property.
The early French socialists wanted to help the poor, whose conditions had not been improved by industrial advances, and they preached greater economic equality between the rich and the poor.
They argued that the government should rationally organize the economy to control prices and prevent unemployment, inspired by the economic planning implemented in revolutionary France.
Socialists believed that the government should regulate private property or that private property should be abolished.
In the 19th century, France was the center of socialism, as it had been the center of revolution in Europe, but in the 20th century, Karl Marx would weave the strands of social thought into a distinctly modern ideology.
Marx studied philosophy at the University of Berlin.
Marx believed that middle-class interests and those of the industrial working class were opposed to each other.
The working class of modern industrialized society is called a Marxist.
Marx predicted that the bourgeoisie would be defeated in a new revolution, just as the feudal aristocracy had been defeated in the French Revolution.
While a tiny majority owned the means of production and grew richer, the ever-poorer proletariat was always growing in size and class-consciousness.
The ruling classes should be prepared for a Communist revolution.
The proletarians have nothing to lose.
They have a world to win.
Marx was influenced by the arguments of Adam Smith and David Ricardo, who argued that labor was the source of all value.
He said that profits were wages that were stolen from the workers.
The oppression of the new class of factory workers in England was included in Friedrich Marx's account.
Marx created one of the great secular religions out of the intellectual ferment of the early nineteenth century.
Social and economic conditions deteriorated for many Europeans as liberal, nationalist, and socialist forces battered the conservatism of 1815.
In some countries, such as Great Britain, change occurred gradually and largely peacefully, but in the 19th century, radical political and social ideologies combined with economic crisis to produce revolutionary movements that demanded an end to repressive government.
France, Austria, and Prussia experienced variations on this basic theme between 1815 and 1848.
The benefits of higher productivity were not felt by many because of the slow spread of industrialization.
After 1850, living standards in Great Britain began to rise, but it took longer for the trend to spread to the rest of the world.
The first half of the 19th century brought a decline in the conditions of daily life for many people in the cities and countryside.
Poor housing, overcrowding, and unsanitary conditions are ideal for the spread of infectious disease in Europe's rapidly growing cities.
The traditional social hierarchy, dominated by a landowning aristocracy, persisted despite booming urbanization.
In the Austrian Empire, Prussia, and Russia, serfdom still existed.
In the early 19th century, the pressures of a rapidly growing population, the adoption of new forms of agriculture, and the spread of exploitative rural industry disrupted these existing patterns.
Many peasants lost access to collective land due to enclosure and the adoption of more efficient farming techniques.
The number of cottage workers resisted exploitation by merchant capitalists and journeymen battled masters in urban industries.
The retracing of borders at the Congress of Vienna has placed many people in new and unfamiliar states.
Popular anger over rising tax rates and other burdens was worsened by lack of loyalty to the central government.
The economic crisis occurred in 1845-1846.
Many people's grievances about taxation were similar to those of the 18th century.
The political ideologies born from the struggles and unfulfilled hopes of the French Revolution, as well as the newly invigorated conservatism that stood against them, transformed these conflicts.
The revolutions of 1848 were the result of these ideologies.
Basic civil rights were guaranteed by the English parliamentary system, but only 8 percent of the population could vote.
The British aristocracy panicked when the French Revolution threw them into a panic.
The British government put down popular protests over unemployment and the high cost of grain after the Napoleonic Wars because of repressive legislation and military force.
The social and economic changes created by industrialization began to be felt in politics by the early 1830s.
Pressure from the middle classes and popular unrest convinced the king and the House of Lords that they needed to act.
The Reform Bill of 1832 made British politics more democratic by increasing representation in the House of Commons and increasing the number of voters.
The main beneficiaries of industrialization, as well as some substantial farmers, received the vote for the first time.
The New Poor Law called for the placement of the unemployed and indigent families in workhouses rather than staying in their homes.
Britain's rulers sought to relieve middle-class taxpayers of the burden of poor relief and to encourage unemployed rural workers to migrate to cities and take up industrial work.
The new social and economic circumstances of the Industrial Revolution led to harsh measures against the poor.
The New Poor Law excluded working people from voting.
The middle class needed support in order to compete with the working class.
The Parliamentary state was able to manage unrest without a revolution because of the competition.
The benefits of industrialization finally began to be felt in Great Britain by the late 1840s, as the living standards had begun to rise significantly.
The revolutions of 1848 shook continental Europe, but England avoided them.
The people of Ireland were not helped by these circumstances.
The population was mostly composed of Irish Catholic peasants who rented their land from a small group of Protestants.
The rural population around 1800 was exploited and grew rapidly.
Ireland's population doubled from 4 million to 8 million between 1780 and 1840 due to the calories and nutritive qualities of the potato.
The potato crop failed in Ireland and throughout Europe in the 19th century.
In Ireland, where dependence on the potato was much more widespread, the result was starvation and death.
The British government reacted slowly and inadequately.
One and a half million people died and another million fled the United States and Great Britain during the 19th century.
The Great Famine increased anti-British feelings and promoted Irish nationalism.
The Constitutional Charter of 1814 was a liberal constitution.
It protected economic and social gains made by the middle class and the peasantry in the French Revolution and created a parliament with upper and lower houses.
The charter was not democratic.
The king and his ministers made the nation's laws, and only a small group of males had the right to vote for them.
Charles X wanted to reestablish the old order in France.
He used a long-standing dispute with Muslim Algeria to rally French nationalism and gain popular support.
The capital of Algiers was taken by the French in June 1830.
Bringing French and other European settlers to Algeria and expropriating large amounts of Muslim-owned land marked the rebirth of French colonial expansion.
Charles repudiated the Constitutional Charter after this success.
Charles fled after a series of revolts by liberals and democrats across Europe.
The situation in France remained the same.
The poor of Paris and political and social reformers were disappointed.
Living conditions for the majority of the working classes deteriorated rather than improved during the 1840s due to bad harvests and the slow development of industrialization.
Similar conditions prevailed across continental Europe.
In February a full-scale revolution broke out in France, and its shock waves spread across the continent.
Louis Philippe was against social legislation or electoral reform.
Frustrated desires for change, high-level financial scandals, and crop failures united diverse groups of the king's opponents.
The right to vote was granted to every adult male in the constitution drafted by the revolutionaries.
Slaves in the French colonies were freed, the death penalty was abolished, and national workshops were established for unemployed Parisian workers.
There were differences within the coalition.
The middle and upper classes were frightened by the socialism promoted by republicans.
The monarchists won a clear majority when the French voted for delegates to the new assembly.
The national workshops in Paris were dissolved by the new government.
The republican army stood triumphant in a sea of blood and hatred after three terrible June days.
The revolution in France failed.
The working and middle classes were against each other.
The constitution of the Constituent Assembly features a strong executive.
Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, won the December 1848 election based on promises to lead a strong government in favor of popular interests.
President Napoleon shared power with the National Assembly.
Louis Napoleon seized power in a coup d'etat after dismissing the Assembly.
He called on the French to make him emperor, and 97 percent of them voted to do so in a national referendum.
Napoleon III was the ruler of France's Second Empire and began policies favoring economic growth and urban development to appease the populace.
The Triumph of Democratic Republics was a series of four lithographs by Frederic Sorrieu.
The nations of Europe are carrying their flags and wearing costumes.
There is a statue of a woman who holds the torch of Enlightenment and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
The statue depicts liberty as a woman, which is similar to the first French Revolution.
There are symbols of the church in crumbled ruins in the foreground.
The nations were arranged based on Sorrieu's perception of their progress towards democracy and freedom.
The Statue of Liberty can be seen behind the French flag on the left.
France is shown passing a statue that suggests that Sorrieu's homeland was at that time in the process of achieving liberty and equality.
Germany has a black, red, and gold flag.
This image shows a dream of German national unification decades before it happened.
The political ideal for Sorrieu was peaceful nation-states with people who were proud of their culture.
Despite differences of wealth and status, each nation is marching together towards freedom.
Christ, who stands beneath the banner of "brotherhood" surrounded by angels, shows divine support for this vision.
The economic crises of 1845 to 1846 caused social conflicts in central Europe.
The outbreak of revolution was caused by news of the upheaval in France.
Liberals wanted more civil liberties from authoritarian regimes.
Popular revolts followed when governments hesitated.
Middle-class liberals and peasants were allied with urban workers and students.
In the face of these coalitions, monarchs made hasty concessions.
Popular revolutionary fronts broke down as they had in France.
In comparison to France, where political participation by working people reached its peak, revolts in central Europe tended to be dominated by social elites.
Moderate constitutionalists and radical republicans were very different.
The revolution in the Austrian Empire began in Hungary in the 19th century.
The Habsburg emperor Ferdinand I promised reforms and a liberal constitution when students and workers took to the streets.
The coalition of revolutionaries was not stable.
The newly free peasants lost interest in politics and social issues after the monarchy abolished serfdom.
The coalition was destroyed by conflicting national ambitions.
In March, the Hungarian revolutionary leaders pushed through an extremely liberal constitution, but they also wanted to create a unified Hungarian nation.
Half of the population objected to the unification of the minority groups because it would hurt their political and cultural independence.
The Czech nationalists came into conflict with the German nationalists.
The Austrian Empire allowed the monarchy to play off one ethnic group against the other.
The army crushed a working-class revolt in the Czech Republic in June.
The regular Austrian army attacked the student and working-class radicals in Vienna in October and retook the city.
Nicholas I of Russia was worried about the spread of liberal ideas.
130,000 Russian troops invaded Hungary.
The Habsburgs ruled Hungary for a long time.
Prussia was the most influential kingdom after Austria.
Prussia was to become a liberal constitutional monarchy prior to 1848, which would lead to the creation of a unified nation.
Prussia's king, Frederick William IV, caved in to the middle-class liberals in Berlin who were against the monarchy.
Prussia will be granted a liberal constitution and merged into a new German state on March 21.
The street battle of March 18, 1848 was between the troops of King Frederick William IV and the civilians.
paving stones were used as weapons by revolutionaries across Europe.
The German Confederation held elections for a national parliament that would write a constitution for a unified German state.
King Frederick William of Prussia was elected emperor of the new German national state in 1849 after members of the new parliament drafted a liberal constitution.
Austria objected when Frederick William tried to get the small monarchs of Germany to choose him on his own terms.
Prussia was forced to abandon its unification schemes by Austria.
The uprisings of 1848 were unsuccessful because they were inspired by the legacy of the late-eighteenth-century revolutionary era.
The forces of order proved to be better organized and more united on both a domestic and international level.
Europe's victorious forces of order were provided with a new political model after Louis Napoleon's triumph in 1848.
In the 1850s and 1860s, this was a great political question.
In central Europe, the national unification of Germany and The Russian Empire was a resounding answer, but they were unlike those in Germany or Italy because Russia was already a multinational state.
The process of defined narrowly as the changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time became clear to Russian leaders.
The changes allow a country to compete effectively with other countries.
According to Herder, the process produced distinct national communities in Europe, each united by a common language and shared traditions.
Herder did not believe that these cultural traditions should lead to nation-states.
He celebrated the common spirit of Europeans based on their history of interaction.
Giuseppe Mazzini, the leader of Italian nationalism before 1848, believed that nations should be independent.
He started a secret society to fight for the unification of the Italian states.
The Italian workingmen were addressed to in the excerpt below.
This is a picture of people in Europe.
The conditions for a great league of nations were created on the small continent of Europe.
The Romans had prepared it.
Outside of Europe, such a league of nations was not possible.
The way of life of people has changed so much, they have changed so often and so much in their habitats.
It would be difficult for single families and individuals to say from which people they descend, whether from Goths, Moors, Jews, Carthaginians or Romans.
The common spirit of Europe could not have been awakened without the hundreds of causes that have changed the tribal composition of the European nations.
The design of God, which you can see clearly marked out, as far as Europe, by the courses of the great rivers, by the lines of the lofty mountains, and by other geographical conditions, has been ruined by evil governments.
The divine design will be fulfilled.
Natural divisions will replace the arbitrary divisions by evil governments.
The map of Europe will be changed.
The voice of the free will guide the rise of the countries of the people.
Without Country, you have no name, voice, or rights.
You are a disgrace.
If there is no common agreement to which you can appeal, then you should not beguile yourself with the hope of being freed from unjust social conditions.