In the High Middle Ages, the towns that became centers of trade and production became cultural and intellectual centers.
Trade brought in new ideas as well as merchandise, and in many cities a new type of educational institution -- the university -- emerged, meeting the needs of the new bureaucratic states and the church for educated administrators.
New forms of architecture and literature flourished as universities emerged.
Since the time of the Carolingian Empire, monasteries and cathedral schools have only offered formal instruction.
In rural environments there were monasteries geared to religious concerns.
In the eleventh century in Bologna and other Italian cities, wealthy businessmen established municipal schools, and in the twelfth century in Italy and France, cathedral schools became larger universities.
There was a revival of interest in Roman law as a result of the growth of the University of Bologna.
There was interest in medicine for hundreds of years at the Italian city of Salerno.
There were Greek and Muslim physicians who had studied the use of herbs.
There was a new interest in the work of Arab and Greek doctors in the 12th century.
The basis of training for physicians at other medieval universities was created from the ideas from this medical literature.
Although medicine and law were important academic disciplines in the Middle Ages, theology was the queen of sciences because it involved the study of God.
In the first decades of the 12th century, students from all over Europe crowded into the cathedral school of Notre Dame in Paris to study theology.
They developed a method of thinking, reasoning, and writing in which questions were raised and authorities were cited on both sides of a question.
The goal of the method was to arrive at questions that were raised and authorities cited on both sides of a question.
Peter Abelard was one of the most famous Scholastics.
He believed logic could be used to solve most problems and used a method of system atic doubt to doubt his writing and teaching.
Other scholars did not discuss or analyze theological principles.
In the 13th century, the Scholastics devoted an enormous amount of time to organize their knowledge.
The collections were published as summa.
At Paris and later at Oxford and Cambridge in England, university faculties grouped themselves according to academic disciplines.
Lower-level members of the clergy were considered to be students living in privately endowed residential colleges.
The university edu cation was restricted to men because of this clerical status.
The lecture was the standard method of teaching at universities.
The professor uses this method to read.
He interpreted the passage.
When a student applied for a degree, exami nations were given after three, four, or five years of study.
The exams were very difficult.
The first bachelor's degree was awarded to the candidate if he passed.
The graduate was able to try for the master's and doctor's degrees.
There were degrees to teach.
Most students didn't become teachers.
The royal and papal administrations were staffed by them.
Religious devotion was expressed through daily rituals, holiday ceremonies, and the creation of new institutions such as universities and religious orders.
This view shows the twin towers, the spire, the great rose window over the south portal, and the flying buttresses that support the wal s and the vaults.
It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, like hundreds of other churches in Europe.
Notre Dame was the tallest building in Europe at the time of its construction.
The most important outlet for these aims was in the building of cathedrals.
Romanesque is a style of architecture that was used in the tenth and eleventh centuries to build cathedrals with large wal s, rounded stone arches, and smal windows.
A new style spread out from central France in the twelfth century.
The uncouth Goths could have invented such a style.
Gothic tural and artistic style supported flying buttresses in Europe from the mid-twelfth to the sixteenth century.
One French abbot claimed that stained-glass windows were cut into the stone so that the interior would shine with the light of most sacred windows.
Between 1180 and 1270 in France alone, eighty cathedrals, about five hundred abbey churches, and tens of thousands of parish churches were con structed in this new style.
They are testimony to the faith and piety of medieval people and also to the civic pride of urban residents, for towns competed with one another to build the largest and most splendid cathedral.
Secular cathedrals were used as religious purposes.
Local guilds met in the cathedrals to arrange business deals.
Pilgrims slept there, lovers courted there, and traveling actors staged plays there.
The cathedral was designed to teach the people the doctrine of Christian faith through the use of stained-glass windows and religious statuary.