The metal wires and connections on the power adapter conduct electricity from the wall sockets to the laptop computer.
The cables are protected by rubber and plastic and allow electrons to move through them.
Electric charge can't escape out of these materials.
Some of the electrons in metals and similar conductors are not bound to individual atoms.
The electrons can move in a conductor if they collide with fixed atoms.
Superconductors have no loss of energy.
There are free ion that can move through salty water.
A molecule has a positive or negative total charge.
The total number of electrons is not the same as the total number of protons.
Glass does not allow charges to move through it.
As much as times more slowly than in conductors, electrons and ions in insulators are bound in the structure and can't move easily.
Pure water and dry table salt are not conductors.
In physics demonstrations and student laboratories, an eoscope is a favorite instrument.
It is usually made with gold foil leaves hung from a metal stem and insulated from the room air in a glass-walled container.
The gold leaves repel charges.
The glass rod is an insturment, so it must touch the electroscope to transfer charge to or from it.
Since only electrons move in metals, we can see that they are attracted to the top of the electroscope.
Some are transferred to the positive rod by touching it.
The leaves move apart due to the horizontal component of the force and the vertical component is balanced by the force.
The electroscope can be charged by contact with an object.
Transferring excess charge directly to an object is not necessary.
Two neutral metal spheres are in contact with each other, but are insulated from the rest of the world.
A positively charged rod is brought near one of them, causing the other sphere to be positively charged.
The separation of charges in an object is called polarization.
Before the rod is pulled away, each sphere will have a net charge.
The object closest to the charged rod receives an opposite charge.
No charge is removed from the charged rod so that the process can be repeated without deplete the supply of excess charge.
When a charged rod is near the neutral metal sphere, it splits into two.
A conducting wire is run from the sphere to the ground after it is grounded.
The earth is a good conductor and can accept excess charge easily.
electrons are attracted to the sphere through a wire called the ground wire The ground connection is broken before the charged rod is removed, leaving the sphere with an excess charge opposite to that of the rod.
An opposite charge is achieved when the charged rod doesn't lose any of its excess charge.
It is possible to charge by induction.
A ground connection is used to charge.
Positive and negative objects can attract a neutral object.
There is a slight shift in the distribution of the electrons around the molecule.
There is a net attraction when the force decreases.
Any charged object can be attracted to neutral objects.
The pieces of straw are neutral.
The charged comb can pick up neutral pieces of paper if you run a plastic comb through your hair.
The distribution of charge in atoms and Molecules is shifted slightly when a charged rod is brought near a neutral substance.
Like charge is repelled when the opposite charge is closer to the rod.
There is a net attraction since the repulsion of like charges is weaker than the attraction of unlike charges.
A positively charged glass rod attracts neutral pieces of paper.
Water is a polar molecule.
There is a separation of charge in polar molecules.
The effects of charged objects on polar molecules are more pronounced than those with uniform charge distributions.