Chapter 24 -- Part 4: Ideologies of Change in Europe
The Romantic poetry movement in England was documented.
The Romantic movement in painting features artists such as Turner, Goya, and Gericault.
The documentary follows the rise of the socialist movement.
It was cut short by the death of British Romantic poet John Keats.
The film is based on the classic Romantic novel by MaryShelley and tells the story of an obsessed scientist who creates a living being in a science experiment.
Adapted from Victor Hugo's novel, the film depicts ex-convict Jean Valjean's pursuit of redemption.
The student uprising in Paris in 1832 is depicted in the film as a commentary on social unrest in early-nineteenth-century France.
There is a lot of material related to Karl Marx in this archive.
In March 1840, he and his fellow slaves were charged with murder and mutiny.
The Supreme Court found them innocent because they had been captured and sold.
They became free men in Sierra Leone.
While industrialization and nationalism were transforming society in Europe and the neo European countries, Western society itself was shaping the world.
European commercial interests went in search of new markets for their manufactured goods.
Millions of Europeans and Asians moved abroad.
In the early 19th century, a relatively peaceful exchange of products with Africa and Asia had turned into a frenzy of imperialist occupation and domination that had a profound impact on both colonizer and colonized.
The "New Imperialism" was the culmination of Western society's underlying economic and technological transformation.
The combination of superior military might and strong authoritarian rule made Western imperialism a brutal challenge to African and Asian peoples.
Changing tactics and different ways of meeting the Western challenge were used by Indigenous societies.
Local elites in many lands led an anti-imperialist struggle for dignity and genuine independence after 1945.
The different regions of Africa experienced gradual but monumental change in the 19th and early 20th century.
By the late 1860s, the slave trade was almost completely gone.
Africa remained free of European political control despite the fact that Islam expanded its influence south of the Sahara Desert in the early 19th century.
The pace of change accelerated as France and Britain led European nations in the "scramble for Africa," dividing and largely conquering the continent.
The foreigners consolidated their authoritarian empires by 1900.
The decline of the Atlantic slave trade was the most important development in West Africa before the European conquest.
The beginning of modern economic development in sub-Saharan Africa was marked by the shift in African foreign trade.
The British encouraged the use of a West African tropical product as an alternative to the slave trade.
The slave trade between Africa and the Americas was the most extensive and significant portion of it.
The African slave trade was considered a legitimate business activity by most Europeans until 1700.
One of the first peaceful mass political movements in British history was formed after the abolition of slavery in Britain.
British women played a critical role in this movement, condemning the immorality of human bondage and stressing the cruel treatment of female slaves and slave families.
The slave trade was declared illegal in 1807.
In order to liberate slave runners' ships, the navy of Britain began to use them to settle captives in the British port of Freetown in Sierra Leone.
The colony of Liberia was established by freed American slaves.
British action had a limited impact.
Demand for slaves on sugar and coffee plantations in Cuba and Brazil remained high until the 1850s and 1860s, despite Britain's navy intercepting less than 10 percent of slave ships.
Slave importation was banned by the United States.
Natural increase (slaves having children) accounted for the growth of the African American slave population before the Civil War.
Portuguese and other European slave traders and African rulers who relied on profits from the trade for power and influence had strong financial incentives.
As more nations joined Britain in outlawing the slave trade, shipments of human cargo slackened along the West African coast.
The ancient but limited shipment of slaves from the East African coast into the Indian Ocean and through the Red Sea expanded dramatically at the same time.
The trade began to decline rapidly in the 1860s.
In the 18th century, slave exports from all regions of Africa decreased from 7.4 million to 6.1 million, but in the 19th century they increased from 6.1 million to 7.4 million.
A legitimate trade began in West Africa.
The sale of palm oil from West Africa to Britain increased from one thousand tons in 1812 to forty thousand tons in 1854.
The self-interest of industrializing Europe was served by the sale of palm oil.
Palm oil was used to make cheap soap and cosmetics.
Both small, independent African family farmers and largescale enterprises could produce peanuts for the large American and European markets, which led to the rapid growth of peanut production for export.
Some of the slaves' labor was diverted into the production of legitimate goods for world markets by powerful West African rulers who benefited from the Atlantic slave trade.
Women were often kept as wives, concubines, or servants, while men were used to transport goods, mine gold, grow crops, and serve in slave armies.
The most intensive use of slaves within Africa coincides with the decline of the transatlantic slave trade.
A new group of African merchants emerged to handle legitimate trade and some grew rich.
Women were the most successful merchants.
The arrival of Europeans provided new opportunities for West African women who have been involved in trade for a long time.
The African wife of a European trader learned all the ins and outs of her husband's business.
When the husband died, the African wife took over his commercial interests, including his European connections.
Many widows used their business skills to make small fortunes.
By the 1850s and 1860s legitimate African traders, flanked by Western-educated African lawyers, teachers, and journalists, had formed an emerging middle class in the West African coastal towns.
African business leadership gave way to imperial subordination in the late 19th and early 20th century.
The Sudanic savanna is a large expanse of flat grassland stretching across Africa below the Sahara's southern fringe.
Islam had been practiced in this region for a long time.
City dwellers, political rulers, and merchants were all Muslim.
The vast majority of the population hold on to traditional animist practices, such as praying at local shrines, and invoke protective spirits.
Muslim rulers didn't try to convert their subjects in the countryside or enforce Islamic law because they shared some of the same beliefs.
The Islamic revival began in the 18th century and continued into the 19th century.
Muslim scholars and religious leaders began to wage religious wars against corrupt rulers and Islamic states.
The new rulers believed African cults and religious practice could no longer be ignored, and they often effected mass conversions of animists to Islam.
Muslim scholars and religious leaders waged a religious war against corrupt rulers.
The pattern of Islamic revival in Africa can be seen in the most important revivalist states.
It was founded by Uthman Dan Fodio, a Muslim teacher who won the trust of both the herders and the Muslims in the northern Sudan.
The jihad of 1804 was one of the most important events of the 19th century.
Uthman claimed that the Hausa rulers killed and stole their subjects without regard for Islamic law.
The new Sokoto caliphate was established by Uthman.
The African state was founded in the 18th century by Uthman Dan Fodio.
The Sokoto caliphate's triumph had consequences for Africa and the Sudan.
The constitution of the caliphate was based on Islamic history and law.
The government of laws made Sokoto one of the most prosperous regions in Africa.
Because of Sokoto and other revivalist states, Islam became more widespread and deeply embedded in Africa than ever before.
The Sokoto caliphate had as many as 2.5 million slaves in 1900.
Islam expanded in East Africa.
From the 1820s on, Arab merchants and explorers went far into the interior in search of slaves and ivory, converting and intermarrying with local elites and establishing small Muslim states.
Sayyid Said conquered the great port city of Mombasa in 1836.
Said gained control of most of the East African coast after moving his capital from southern Arabia.
He took slave shipments from the coast to the Ottoman Empire.
He encouraged Indian merchants to grow clove in his territories.
Between 1880 and 1914 Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and Italy scrambled for African possessions as if their national livelihoods were at stake.
Europeans controlled 90 percent of the African continent by 1914, mainly along the coast.
There were only two independent countries on the West African coast and in northeast Africa.
Africa was carved up by the European powers in the late 19th century.
The high point of European imperialism was in the late 19th century.
The events and individuals that stand out are related to the general causes of Europe's imperialist burst after 1880.
The antislavery movement succeeded in shutting down the Atlantic slave trade by the late 1860s, and slavery's persistence elsewhere attracted growing attention in western Europe and the Americas.
The publicizing of the horrors of slave raids and the suffering of thousands of enslaved Africans was done by Missionaries.
The public was led to believe that David Livingstone's famous phrase, "Commerce, Christianity, and Civilization", would bring civilization to Africa.
King Leopold II was from Belgium.
His agents planted Leopold's flag along the river.
Leopold deceived other European leaders by promising to promote Christianity and civilization in his proposed free state.
The European conference on sub-Saharan Africa in Berlin in 1884-1885 was arranged to lay down some rules for the imperialist competition.
The principle that European claims to African territory had to rest on "effective occupation" was established by the Berlin Conference.
If a nation took possession of the territory through signed treaties with local leaders and began to develop it economically, it could establish a colony.
The representatives at the conference recognized Leopold's rule.
A meeting of European leaders in 1884-1885 laid down rules for imperialist competition in Africa.
The Berlin Conference agreed to care for the native peoples' moral and material well-being, bring Christianity and civilization to Africa, and suppress slavery and the slave trade.
The General Act of the conference states that all the Powers exercising sovereignty or influence in the territories bind themselves to watch over the preservation of the native tribes, and to care for the improvement of their moral and material well-being.
These ideals were not allowed to interfere with the primary goal of commerce, which was to hold on to their old markets and exploit new ones.
Germany's emergence as an imperial power coincides with the Berlin Conference.
In 1884 and 1885 Germany established protectorates, which were partly controlled and protected by a stronger outside power, over a number of small African kingdoms and societies.
France's Jules Ferry cooperated with the British in acquiring colonies.
The French formed a protectionate on the river.
The British pushed northward from the Cape Colony and eastward from the East African coast.
A territory is partly controlled and protected by an outside power.
The British moved southward from Egypt, which they had seized in 1882, but were blocked in the eastern Sudan by fiercely independent Muslims.
Muhammad Ahmad, a messianic redeemer of Islam, led a revolt against foreign control of Egypt in the 19th century.
In 1885, his army massacred a British force and took the city of Khartoum, forcing the British to retreat to Cairo.
A railroad was built to supply arms and reinforcements as the British force came back ten years later.
The Sudanese Muslims were cut down by the machine gun when these troops met their foe at Omdurman in 1898.
Twenty-eight Britons were killed, while eleven thousand Muslim fighters lay dead.
The violence and brutality in Leopold II's Congo Free State was worse than in any colony.
European companies operating in the Congo Free State introduced slavery, savagery, and terror instead of promoting Leopold's promised Christianity and civilization.
Missionaries were not allowed into the colony to report the horrors they would see there.
The treatment of Africans under colonial rule was more brutal than in Leopold II's Congo Free State.
Some people were whipped to death.
In the 1890s, after the elephant herds of the Democratic Republic of the Congo had been decimated, a new cash crop came to take their place.
The process to make inflatable rubber tires was developed in the late 19th century.
As new uses for rubber were found, a worldwide boom in the demand for raw rubber followed.
More than half of the colony possessed wild rubber vines growing in the rain forest.
Leopold allowed companies to make profits in the Congo, but soon they ran out of rubber.
Europeans and their well-armed mercenaries slashed off hands, feet, and heads, and wiped out entire villages to send a message that Africans must either work for the Europeans or die.
In the first years of the 19th century, Edmund Morel and other human rights activists exposed the truth about the terrible conditions in the Congo Free State.
Leopold was forced to turn over his private territory to Belgium in the early 20th century.
Between 1890 and 1910, the African population of the Free State declined by 10 million souls, according to one historian.
The public was made aware of the brutal conditions in the Congo through the efforts of reformers and journalists.
George Washington Williams, an African American Baptist minister, lawyer, and historian, was enamored by the noble humanitarian goals that Leopold II claimed to have for the Congo, but when he visited in 1890 he was horrified by what he saw.
One of the earliest firsthand accounts of the horrors of the Congo can be found in his public letter to King Leopold.
Edmund Morel, a British clerk, was galvanized to start a campaign against Leopold after he noticed that most of the goods that his shipping firm sent to the Congo were weapons, shackles, and ammunition.
Two Belgian Army officers saw a native in a canoe from the deck of their steamer.
He was ignorant of the conflict.
The officers made a bet that they could hit the native with their rifles.
Three shots were fired and the native fell dead, pierced through the head, and the trade canoe was transformed into a funeral barge and floated silently down the river.
One of the most atrocious features of the persistent warfare of which year in year out the Congo territories are the scene is the killing of both the dead and the living.
Some people were shot on Lake Mantumba.
The survivors of the slaughter reported the matter to a missionary at Irebu, who went down to see if it was true.
The little girl who recovered after being among the victims was not dead at the time.
The development of southern Africa was different from that of the rest of Africa.
Whites settled in large numbers, the capitalist industry took off, and British imperialists had to wage war.
There were about twenty thousand free Dutch citizens and twenty-five thousand African slaves when the British took possession of the Dutch Cape Colony.
The battle to build strong states in southern Africa was fought by British colonial forces, the African chiefdoms, and the Boers.
The largest and most powerful kingdom in southern Africa was created in the 19th century by the talented king Shaka.
The use of a short spear in deadly hand-to-hand combat was mastered by the warriors drafted by age groups.
The African enemies of the Zulu armies were often destroyed completely, causing chaos and sending refugees fleeing in all directions.
The creation of Sotho, Tswana, Swazi, and Ndebele were caused by the wars waged by Shaka.
The states were mostly subdued by Dutch and British invaders by 1890.
The British abolished slavery in the Cape Colony in the 18th century to protect African labor.
After the abolition of slavery, Afrikaner cattle ranchers and farmers began to migrate northward in protest of the treatment of blacks by the British.
A group of Afrikaners joined them north of the Orange River in 1845.
Afrikaner and British settlers formed a division of southern Africa over the next thirty years.
Afrikaners ruled the ranch-land republics of Orange Free State and the Transvaal in the interior.
The majority of the African peoples lost their land but remained the majority.
After the discovery of gold and the beginning of the Witwatersrand gold rush, a photo was taken of both black and white miners at a gold mine.
Twenty-one years after the discovery of diamonds at Kimberley, labor segregation had become a regular feature of mine work.
Blacks were limited to dangerous low- wage labor while white workers claimed the supervisor's job.
The discovery of diamonds and gold in the Transvaal Republic of the Afrikaners in 1886 made possible large-scale industrial capitalism and changed the lives of all its peoples.
Powerful financiers, including Cecil Rhodes, soon gave way to smallscale miners.
At seventeen, Rhodes left a large middle-class British family and went to southern Africa to find his fortune.
The "color bar" system of the diamond fields gave whites the well-paid skilled positions and put black Africans in the dangerous, low-wage jobs far below the earth's surface.
As a result of this, Southern Africa became one of the world's leading diamond and gold producers.
The appetite of British imperialists was whetted by the mining bonanza.
He once said that the British are the best people in the world, with the highest ideals of decency and justice and liberty and peace.
The British South Africa Company was set up by the British government in order to force African chiefs to accept British protectors.
Southern Rhodesia is a region where Europeans deceived African rulers to take their land.
The ruler of Matabele in Zimbabwe met with three of Rhodes's men, led by Charles Rudd, and signed the Rudd Concession in the late 19th century.
British fortune hunters were allowed a few years of gold prospecting in Matabeleland.
The document's true meaning was misled by the Reverend Charles Helm and the London Missionary Society.
Even though he repudiated the agreement, he opened the way for Rhodes's seizure of the territory.
The British South Africa Company received a royal charter from Queen Victoria to occupy Matabeleland.
The First and Second Matabele Wars were fought by Rhodes's private army, but they were decimated by British Maxim guns.
Matabeleland ceased to exist by 1897 and was replaced by the British-ruled colony of Southern Rhodesia.
After being behind the fly for a while, the chameleon moves very slowly and gently, first putting forward one leg and then the other.
He darts his tongue at the fly and it flies away.
I am the fly in England.
The South African War of 1899-1902 was started by Rhodes and the imperialist group because the Transvaal gold fields were still in Afrikaner hands.
The Afrikaners never had more than 30,000 men in the field.
The British used a scorched-earth strategy to destroy Afrikaner property and held Afrikaner families and their servants in concentration camps, which resulted in thousands of deaths of illness.
Estimates of the number of Africans on either side ranged from 15,000 to 40,000.
They did everything from scouting and guard duty to heavy manual labor.
South Africa's blacks were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- The Afrikaners representative government was promised by the British in return for surrender.
The Cape Colony, Natal, the Orange Free State, and the Transvaal formed a Union of South Africa in 1910.
Afrikaners regained what they had lost on the battlefield because the white minority held almost all political power in the new union.
After World War II, the British- Afrikaner government created a harsher system of racial separation in South Africa, known as apartheid.
The system of colonial administration was taking shape after Africa was conquered.
The traditional social order was weakened or shattered by this system.
The goal of the French and the British was to provide good government for their African subjects after World War I.
A strong, authoritarian government, with a small army, built up an African police force, and included a modern bureaucracy capable of taxing and governing the population was what it meant.
Many African leaders and their peoples chose not to fight back against the invaders' superior force.
The goal of law and order was achieved.
Basic social services were not provided by the colonial governments.
Education, public health, hospital, and other social service expenditures increased after the Great War, but still remained limited.
Europeans relied on the modest efforts of state-subsidized mission schools because they feared the political implications of mass education.
They tried to make their colonies pay for themselves.
The colonial goal was to bring the African interior into the world economy on favorable terms.
Railroads linking coastal trading centers to interior outposts made it easy to ship raw materials and manufactured goods.
Railroads allowed quick troop movements to put down local unrest and allowed many African peasants to earn their first paychecks.
African students are being taught by a Roman Catholic nun.
Before a school building was built, nuns and priests held classes outside.
They traveled to surrounding African villages and held classes there.
The students received a mixture of religious and academic instruction.
The focus on economic development and low-cost rule explains why colonial governments were reluctant to take action against slavery.
Officials feared that an abrupt abolition of slavery where it existed would disrupt production and lead to costly revolts by powerful slaveholding elites in Muslim areas.
Halfway measures were designed to satisfy humanitarian groups in Europe and also make all Africans free or enslaved, participate in a market economy and work for wages.
Many slaves were encouraged to run away because of this cautious policy.
Taxes were often imposed by the colonial governments.
These taxes forced Africans to work for their white overlords.
Forced labor was the most hated aspect of colonialism by Africans.
The result of these developments was an increase in wage work and production geared to the world market and a decline in nomadic herding and traditional self-sufficient farming of sustainable crops.
The gradual growth of a world-oriented cash economy after 1900 had a revolutionary impact on large parts of Africa.
Western expansion into Africa and Asia peaked in the early 20th century.
The leading European nations sent money and manufactured goods to both continents in order to create or enlarge political empires.
Between 1816 and 1880, there was limited economic penetration of non-Western territories, which left China or a Japan politically independent.
European countries created vast political empires abroad in the latenineteenth century.
The seizure of almost all of Africa was one of the most spectacular manifestations of the New Imperialism.
The subject of Chapter 26 was Europe's extension of political control in Asia.
Many factors contributed to the West's late-nineteenth-century rush for territory in Africa and Asia.
Basic causes are clearly identifiable despite complexity and controversy.
Economic motives were important in the extension of political empires.
France, Germany, and the United States were industrializing quickly.
For a century Great Britain was the center of industrial power.
Between 1870 and 1914, its share of global manufacturing output dropped from 33 percent to 14 percent, as it faced increasingly tough competition in foreign markets.
The practice of free trade and laissez-faire capitalism was abandoned by America and Europe to protect home industries.
Unable to export their goods, Britain, the other European powers, and the United States turned to imperial expansion, seeking African and Asian colonies to sell their products and acquire cheap raw materials.
The Long Depression touched off the age of New Imperialism.
Economic gains from the New Imperialism were limited before 1914.
The new colonies were too poor to invest in much.
colonies became important for political and diplomatic reasons.
They were important to national security, military power, and international prestige.
Social Darwinian theories of brutal competition among races have increased aggressiveness in colonial rivalries.
The strongest nation has always been conquering the weakest, argued an English economist in 1873.
European nations were considered racially distinct parts of the white race and had to seize colonies to prove their strength.
The conquest of "inferior" peoples was just because racial struggle was nature's inescapable law.
Imperialist expansion was fostered by social Darwinism.
The industrial world's technological and military superiority did the same.
Three developments were important.
The machine gun was an ultimate weapon in many battles.
Malaria attacks had decimated Europeans in the tropics before the discovery of quinine.
The Western powers were strengthened by the introduction of steam power.
They were able to quickly transport their armies by rail or sea.
Round-trip journeys to far-flung colonies were made more quickly and economically by steamships.
The technological gap between the West and non-Western regions of the world would never be the same again.
Europeans in the tropics had previously been decimated by Malaria and an agent proved effective in controlling it.