In the Americas and Australia, in the 19th century, there was a period of nation building as well as industrial and commercial growth.
The century was a time of large-scale in-migration and geographical expansion.
Canada and the countries of South America were colonies at the end of the 18th century.
The United States was a small experiment in democracy.
English criminals used Australia as a dumping ground.
Slavery was difficult for Native Americans.
By 1914 all the countries found their world under assault during the 19th century were stronger and richer than they had been in the past.
In the long lands where Indians lived in the 19th century, there were many issues that crosscut the histories of all these countries.
The outcomes by 1914 were very different.
The United States was a major industrial power and a stable democracy.
Canada and Australia had mostly agricultural economies.
The economies of most of the countries of Latin America did not fare as well in the emerging world trade system.
Spain's control of an American empire in the 1800's provided the mother country with a lot of wealth.
The desire for independence in the colonies was fostered by the stance of Spain, who believed that the Americas had a benefit.
The Spanish colonies in Latin America were convulsed by upheavals that resulted in the dissolution of the empire.
People of Spanish descent are born in the Americas.
The colonial officials and other natives of Spain or Portugal were called LUHR-ayz.
The rich export-import trade, intercolonial trade, and mining industries are controlled by a tiny minority.
The peninsulares were the ruling class of the Creoles and they wanted to leave Spain and Portugal.
They had no interest in improving the lot of the Indians, the mestizos, or the mulattos of mixed Spanish and African heritage.
The countries of Latin America became national states over the course of the 19th century.
The heritage of colonial exploitation, a neocolonial economic structure, massive emigration from Europe and Asia, and the fusion of Amerindian, Caucasian, African, and Asian peoples were the main factors in this evolution.
The Latin American movements for independence drew strength from unfair taxation and trade policies, Spain's declining control over its Latin American colonies, racial and class discrimination, and the spread of revolutionary ideas.
The Spanish colonies became self-sufficient in food, wine, textiles, and consumer goods by the 18th century, despite Spain's monopoly on alcohol and tobacco.
The War of the Spanish Succession resulted in demands for sweeping reform of Spain's institutions, including its colonial policies and practices.
The new viceroyalty of New Granada was carved out of the old viceroyalty ofPeru to improve administrative efficiency.
The viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata was created by the Crown with its capital at Buenos Aires.
The coat of arms on the wall, the richly embroidered and expensive coat, the knee breeches, and the plaque of titles all attest to the proud status of this member of the peninsulare.
James Cook lands in Australia and Venezuela, sugar in the Caribbean, and hides, leather, and salted claims for British crown beef in the Rio de la Plata viceroyalty.
The wine industry was shattered by the British government.
Spain believed its colonies should bear some of the province of Quebec in two costs of their own defense because of the Constitution Act in Canada.
The United States purchases Louisiana prices of tobacco and liquor and has increased sales taxes on many items.
The United States was helped by political conflicts beyond the colonies.
Foreign traders from the United States swarmed into Spanish-American ports.
Mexican land laws put a lot of land in the hands of a few people.
The United States has the right to build colonial governments.
The makeup of Latin American societies is one of the most complex in the world.
Spanish men formed relationships with Indian and African women, while African men sought Indian women.
The population was made up of every possible combination of Indian, Spanish, and African blood.
People of African descent were rejected by Spanish theories of racial purity.
Peninsulares and Creoles were able to reinforce their privileged status by showing off to people who weren't white.
Blacks and Indians were kept in positions of power by the owners of mines, plantations, and ries.
In the colonial period, nonwhites in Latin America had more social mobility than nonwhites in the North American colonies.
The army and the church seem to offer the most opportunities for social mobility.
Many black slaves gained their freedom when they fled to the jungles or mountains.
Enlightenment ideas had trickled into Latin America for decades.
The writings of Thomas Paine and Thomas Jefferson were written by North American ships.
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was translated by Antonio Narino.
Latin America is mapped in the PastMap.
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