Chapter 18 -- Part 1: European Power and Expansion
King Louis XIV received foreignambassadors to celebrate a peace treaty.
The early modern era witnessed crisis and transformation in Europe.
The long European struggle for stability began with conflicts sparked by the Protestant and Catholic Reformations in the early 16th century and continued with economic and social breakdown into the late 17th century.
By the end of the 17th century, they had restored order and secured more power for the state.
Conflicts over these questions led to rebellions and civil war.
The absolute monarchy and the constitutional state emerged from the conflicts between 1589 and 1715.
The rest of the world has been influenced by one of these patterns.
Empire and colonialism were an important foundation of state power.
England, France, and the Netherlands vied for territory in Asia and the Americas, while Russia pushed its borders east to the Pacific and west.
Exchange within and among empires produced constant movement of people, goods, and culture, with no one region or empire able to dominate the others entirely.
Political and social factors were involved in the splintering.
European colonial expansion was shaped by religious transformation.
The Western Christian Church was split in the early 16th century due to religious reform.
Many calls for reform in the church came from both inside and outside the church.
Critics of the church focused on clerical immorality.
There were charges of immorality against priests who were drunkards, neglected the rule of celibacy, or gambled.
The priests who delivered poor-quality sermons were charged with being ignorant.
Many clerics held several offices at the same time.
They did not visit the communities served by the benefices.
They hired a poor priest to fulfill their spiritual duties instead of collecting revenues.
Local resentment of clerical privileges and immunities was also present.
Priests, monks, and nuns were not required to pay taxes or defend the city.
Large amounts of urban property were held by religious orders.
The clergy were being integrated into civic life.
The independence of the church from lay control has been stressed by the papacy for centuries.
The ideas of Martin Luther, a priest and professor of theology from the German University of Wittenberg, found a ready audience because of this range of complaints.
These ideas were attractive to educated people and urban residents, and they spread quickly through preaching, hymns, and the printing press.
The appeal of Protestantism to middle-class urban men and women is due to the fact that the best form of Christian life was marriage and a family.
The large covered bed at the back was both a standard piece of furniture in urban homes and a symbol of propermarital sexual relations.
Luther lived in the Holy Roman Empire, a collection of largely independent states in which the emperor had less authority than the monarchs of western Europe.
The ruler of the territory in which Luther lived protected the reformer even though the emperor Charles V was a supporter of Catholicism.
Luther continued to preach and write even after he was summoned by Charles V.
Luther's ideas appealed to the local rulers of the empire for a number of reasons.
People had an understanding of being German because of their language and traditions.
Luther used the phrase "we Germans" in his attacks on the papacy, and his appeal to national feeling influenced many rulers.
The legal confimation of church properties is a result of the adoption of Protestantism.
Many political authorities in the empire used the religious issue to enhance their independence from the emperor.
Luther viewed political authorities as justified in their reform of the church in their territories.
The legitimacy of rulers was drawn from their support for religion.
Many parts of the Holy Roman Empire broke away from the Catholic Church.
The Protestant Church was established in England in the 1530s under King Henry VIII and his daughter Elizabeth I.
Church officials were required to sign an oath of loyalty to the monarch, and people were required to attend services at the state church, which became known as the Anglican Church.
There are Protestant ideas in France, the Netherlands, Scotland, and eastern Europe.
A second generation of reformers built on earlier ideas to develop their own theology and plans for institutional change.
John Calvin was the most important of the second generation reformers.
Calvin believed that God was omnipotent and that humans had no free will.
Men and women couldn't work to achieve salvation because God decided at the beginning of time who would be saved and who wouldn't, a theological principle called predestination.
The Presbyterian Church in Scotland, the Huguenot Church in France, and the Puritan Churches in England and New England were all modeled after the church in Geneva.
Calvinism was the compelling force in international Protestantism, first in Europe and then in many Dutch and English colonies around the world.
The dominant form of Protestantism in France was Calvinism.
Europe remained Catholic in the mid-sixteenth century.
The ruler of each territory in the Holy Roman Empire was given the power to determine the religion of the people.
The northern territories of the empire became Lutheran, while the southern empire remained Catholic.
Calvinist populations existed in Scotland, the Netherlands and central Europe.
The Ottoman Empire to the south and southeast was Muslim while Eastern Europe was dominated by Orthodox Christianity.
The papacy led a movement for reform within the Roman Catholic Church after the Protestant Reformation.
Many historians see the developments within the Catholic Church after the Protestant Reformation as two interrelated movements, one a drive for internal reform linked to earlier reform efforts and the other a CounterReformation that opposed Protestantism.
Pope Paul III established the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, often called the Holy Office, with judicial authority over all Catholics and the power to imprison and execute.
The spiritual renewal of the Catholic Church can be traced back to the Council of Trent.
It gave equal validity to the Scriptures and tradition as sources of religious truth and tackled problems that had disappointed many Christians.
To establish a seminary for educating and training clergy, bishops were required to live in their dioceses.
The emphasis was placed on preaching and instructing the laity.
The basis for Roman Catholic faith, organization, and practice can be found in the Council of Trent.
New religious orders aimed to raise the moral and intellectual level of the clergy and people, just as seminaries provided education.
The prestige of the education of women was attained by the order of nuns.
The order was founded in 1540 and played an important role in spreading the faith around the world.
The Society of Jesus was formed primarily from wealthy merchant and professional families.
The well-run schools were established to educate the sons of the nobility.
The Jesuits were able to bring Christianity to South and Central America, India, and Japan before 1550 and to Brazil, North America, and the Congo in the 17th century.
Jesuits had great political influence as confessors and spiritual directors.
The goal of the Society of Jesus was to spread the Roman Catholic faith through schools and missionary activity.
Jesuit missionaries baptizing converts in south China.
Civil wars and riots were caused by religious differences in Europe during the 16th century.
The fighting began in the Holy Roman Empire.
The empire was a confederation of hundreds of principalities, independent cities, duchies, and other polities.
If the emperor gets even more power, the French will intervene.
The Peace of Augsburg officially recognized Lutheranism and ended the religious war in Germany.
Charles V abdicated in 1556 in favor of his son Philip II and brother Ferdinand, ending his hopes of unifying his empire under a single church.
There were armed battles between Catholic royalists and Calvinist antiroyalists in France.
There was an attack on Calvinists in Paris on August 24, 1572 at the marriage of the king's sister Margaret of Valois to the Protestant Henry of Navarre.
The civil war that followed the massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day lasted fifteen years and destroyed agriculture and commercial life in many areas.
The movement for church reform in the Netherlands became a struggle for Dutch independence.
Spanish authorities tried to suppress Calvinist worship in the 1560s.
There was a civil war between Catholics and Protestants in the Netherlands from 1568 to 1578.
The Spanish Habsburg forces took control of the southern provinces.
The seven northern provinces formed the Union of Utrecht and declared their independence from Spain in 15 81.
The north and south were both Protestant.
Spain agreed to a truce in 1609 that recognized the independence of the northern provinces.
Between 100,000 and 200,000 people were tried for witchcraft in the 16th and 17th century during the era of religious wars.
Church officials and secular authorities acted together to prosecute witches.
New demonological ideas, legal procedures involving torture, and neighborhood tensions were some of the factors that contributed to the witch-hunts.
Between 75 and 85 percent of the accused were women, who some demonologists thought were more likely to give in to the Devil.
Europe was challenged by population losses, economic decline, and social and political unrest in the 17th century.
Military competition among European powers resulted in increased taxation and war.
Peasants and the urban poor rioted against high food prices because of the economic problems.
Emergency measures were taken to restore order and turn them into long-term reforms that strengthened the power of the state.
European states were able to impose their will on the populace.
The Peasants occupied the lower tiers of the society.
In Europe, the monarch was celebrated as a semidivine being chosen by God to embody the state.
The clergy was the first order of society due to its sacred role in interceding with God.
The nobles had a privileged status because of their leadership in battle.
A second tier of nobles were formed when many prosperous mercantile families bought their way into the nobility through service to the monarchy.
The peasants and artisans who formed the vast majority of the population were expected to show their respect to their betters.
God was linked to his creation in a series of ranked social groups by the "Great Chain of Being".
European societies were patriarchal.
A man's wife, children, servants, and apprentices were commanded to respect and obey him by religious and secular law.
Father were allowed to use physical violence, imprisonment, and other measures to impose their authority.
Expectations that a good father would care for his dependents balanced these powers.
In western Europe, a small number of peasants owned enough land to feed themselves and had the necessary equipment to work their land.
The leaders of the village were independent farmers.
Below them were small landlords and tenant farmers who didn't have enough land to be self-sufficient.
The villagers were dependent laborers and servants.
Private landowning among peasants was a feature of western Europe.
The vast majority of peasants in central and eastern Europe were serfs for noble landlords, while in the Ottoman Empire all land was owned by the sultan.
Much of the globe was affected by a colder and more variable climate in the 17th century.
The "little ice age" was a period of cold weather and too much rain that resulted in shorter growing seasons and lower yields.
A bad harvest can cause food shortages and lead to famine.
The population of Europe and Asia was diminished due to recurrent famines.
The mid-seventeenth century was a tough time for Europeans, with meager harvests, high taxation, and social unrest.
The industry also suffered.
The output of woolen textiles in Europe declined sharply.
Wages were stagnant, food prices were high, and unemployment was high.
The economic crisis struck different regions at different times.
Spain, France, Germany, and the British Isles all experienced economic difficulties in the middle decades of the century, but these years were the golden age of the Netherlands.
South Asia and the Americas also emerged relatively unscathed.
The urban poor and peasants were the hardest hit.
They rioted when the price of bread rose beyond their ability to pay.
Since they were mothers, women often led these actions.
The early modern European view is that community needs to be the priority and that necessary goods should be sold at a fair price.
Neighborhood bread riots became armed uprisings across Europe during the middle years of the 17th century.
During the 1640s, popular revolts were common in England, France, and the Spanish Empire.
Spanish king Philip IV faced revolt in Portugal, the northern provinces of the Netherlands, and Spanish-occupied Sicily at the same time as he struggled to put down an uprising in Catalonia.
The English monarch was tried and executed by his subjects and Russia experienced an explosion of rebellion during the same period.
The fall of the Ming empire in China in 1644) was the culmination of a series of popular revolts.
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The rebels had some leverage because of the limitations of royal authority.
In order to quell riots, royal edicts were sometimes suspended.
In addition to harsh economic conditions, popular unrest was greatly exacerbated by the impact of the Thirty Years' War, a war that drew in almost every European state.
There was a change in the balance of population between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire that led to the war.
The Protestant Union was formed by Lutheran princes and the Catholic League was formed by Catholics.
A large-scale conflict lasting from 1618 to 1648 pitting Protestants against Catholics in central Europe, but also involved the interests of Spain and France.
The war began with a conflict between the Catholic League and the Protestant Union in the present-day Czech Republic, which spread through the Holy Roman Empire.
After a series of initial Catholic victories, the tide of the conflict turned due to the intervention of Sweden and France.
The end of the Thirty Years' War marked a turning point in European history.
The treaties that established the peace ended conflicts fought over religious faith but also gave the emperor's authority over more than three hundred German princes.
Calvinism was added to Catholicism and Lutheranism as legal permissible creeds.
The Dutch Republic won official freedom from Spain.
Prior to the world wars of the twentieth century, the Thirty Years' War was the most destructive event in central Europe.
One-third of urban residents and two-fifths of the rural population died.
States increased taxes to meet the cost of war in Europe.
In this context of warfare, economic crisis, popular revolt, and demographic decline, rulers took urgent measures to restore order and rebuild their states.
The models of government prevailed in some states.
In others, constitutionalist forces were in charge.
They followed a pattern of state-building and consolidation of power found across the region.
Poor communications, entrenched local power structures and ethnic and linguistic diversity made it difficult for rulers to increase their authority.
The new levels of power and national unity achieved by both the absolutist and constitutional governments were achieved over the course of the 17th century.
Emergency measures of wartime were transformed into permanent structures of government and subduing privileged groups through the combined use of force and economic and social incentives.
Increased state authority can be seen in four areas: a huge growth in the size and professionalism of armies, higher taxes, larger and more efficient bureaucrats, and territorial expansion both within Europe and overseas.
Government sponsorship of scientific inquiry is one of the important areas of European state growth.
When a state has a monopoly over the use of force within clearly defined boundaries, it's called a state.
Private armies do not pose a threat to central authority.
The states of the 17th century did not acquire full sovereignty.
The use of force within clearly defined boundaries and in which private armies are not a threat to central control was made important by European states.
absolutist states claimed that they were responsible to God alone because they were chosen by God.
monarchs claimed exclusive power to make and enforce laws, denying any other institution or group the authority to check their power.
The system was limited by the need to compromise with elites.
Three key examples of the development of the state are provided by Spain, France, and Austria.
A political system common to early modern Europe in which monarchs claimed exclusive power to make and enforce laws, without checks by other institutions, was limited in practice by the need to maintain legitimacy and compromise with elites.
The wealth of empire had been hidden due to the discovery of silver at Potosi in 1545.
When Philip IV took the throne in 1621, there was a huge and overstretched empire, which combined different kingdoms with their own traditions and loyalties.
Spanish silver created wealth but also dependency.
Spanish industry and finance remained underdeveloped while Creoles undertook new industries in the colonies and European nations targeted Spanish colonial trade.
The first half of the 17th century showed Spain's limitations.
Between 1610 and 1650 Spanish trade with the colonies in the New World fell due to competition from Dutch and English traders.
In 1609, the Crown expelled three hundred thousand Moriscos, or former Muslims, reducing the pool of skilled workers and merchants.
The disease decimated the enslaved workers who toiled in South American silver mines.
After Dutch privateers seized the entire silver fleet in 1628, the quantity of metal produced began to decline.
The expenses of war and imperial rule were always higher than the income.
It was not possible to force the kingdoms of the empire to shoulder the cost of defense despite the efforts of Philip's able chief minister.
The collapse of national credit and steep inflation were caused by the Spanish crown's attempts to meet state debt.
Spanish aristocracy tried to maintain an extravagant lifestyle by increasing rents on their estates.
The peasants left the land due to high rents and taxes.
Wages and production were stagnant in cities.
New scientific methods from Holland and England were ignored by Spain.
Margaret Theresa is surrounded by her ladies-in-waiting.
The king and queen of Spain are reflected in a mirror behind the princess as Velazquez paints himself on a canvas.
Spain was compelled to recognize the independence of the Dutch Republic by the Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, and another treaty granted extensive territories to France.
In 1688, the Spanish crown reluctantly recognized the independence of Portugal.
The era of Spanish dominance in Europe ended with these losses.
France was the largest and most populous state in western Europe, but its position at the beginning of the 17th century appeared weak.
Spain's predominance in Europe was not threatened by France, which was struggling to recover from decades of religious civil war.
The countries' positions changed by the end of the century.
The Bourbon dynasty defusing religious tensions and rebuilding France's economy was inaugurated by Henry IV.
The right to worship in 150 traditionally Protestant towns throughout France was granted by the Edict of Nantes in 1598.
He invested in infrastructure and raised revenue by selling royal offices.
Henry was murdered in 1610 despite his efforts at peace.
The first minister of the French crown was Cardinal Richelieu.
Richelieu wanted to strengthen royal control.
Each of France's thirty two districts had intendants who were appointed by and responsible to the monarch.
Richelieu reduced the power of provincial nobles by using the intendants to gather information.
Richelieu put seige to La Rochelle, a Protestant stronghold, because he viewed France's Huguenots as potential rebels.
The main goal of Richelieu's foreign policy was to destroy the Habsburgs' hold on territories surrounding France.
Richelieu supported Habsburg enemies during the Thirty Years' War.
Richelieu was succeeded as chief minister by Cardinal Jules Mazarin, who was four years older than Louis XIV.
The uprisings of the Fronde were caused by Mazarin's struggle to increase royal revenues to meet the costs of the Thirty Years' War.
The Parlement of Paris, the nation's most important law court, was upset by the Crown's measures.
The robe nobles encouraged violent protest by the common people.
The rebellion faded when Louis XIV became king in his own right in 1651.
The French people were desperate for peace and stability after the Fronde and were willing to accept a strong monarch who could restore order.
Louis insisted that only his authority would keep the French people together and prevent a descent into chaos.
The French monarchy became the most powerful nation in western Europe during the reign of Louis XIV.
God had established kings as his rulers on earth, and they were answerable to him alone.
Louis realized that kings couldn't just do as they pleased.
They had to follow the laws of the Almighty.
absolutist monarchs in Europe believed that their power was only answerable to God.
Like his counterpart, the emperor of China, who took a personal role in many of the decisions of the council of state, he insisted on taking a personal role in many of the decisions.
The traditional French representative assembly composed of the three estates of clergy, nobility, and commoners was never called by Louis despite the increasing financial problems.
The nobility did not have any means of united expression or action.
To further restrict their political power, he excluded them from his council.
Louis hated division.
The security of the state was dependent on religious unity.
The Edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis.
Some of the kingdom's most skilled artisans were among the two hundred thousand Protestants who fled France.
Despite his claims to absolute authority, there were multiple constraints on Louis's power.
He was obliged to rule in a way that was consistent with virtue and paternal benevolence as a representative of divine power.
The laws were issued by his predecessors.
He relied on the collaboration of nobles.
The lives of the emperors of France and China were very similar.
Louis's mother, Queen Anne of Austria, and his grandmother, Grand Emperor Xiaozhuang, both ruled from powerful women.
Both rulers demonstrated a thirst for power and hard work.
Jesuits were sent to the Chinese court to spread knowledge.
Christianity was banned from the realm of the emperor because he was fascinated by their learning and technology.
The descriptions written by a French courtier and a Jesuit missionary about the rulers of Louis XIV and the Kangxi emperor show similar qualities.
He was as dignified and majestic in his dressing gown as he was in robes of state, or on horseback at the head of his troops.
He liked to have every facility for exercising.
No fatigue or stress of weather made a difference on that heroic figure and bearing; drenched with rain or snow, pierced with cold, bathed in sweat or covered with dust, he was always the same.
His days and hours were more precise than anything else.
Even though he had many places, affairs, and amusements, with an almanac and a watch, one could tell exactly what he was doing.
In a few words, reproof was rarely, if ever, administered.
He did not lose control of himself more than four or five times in his life.
He is a little crooked, and has the Small-pox, but not so as to be disfigur'd by them.
His Natural Genius is such as can be parallel'd but by few, being endowed with a Quick and piercing Wit, a vast Memory, and Great Understanding, which makes him the fittest Person in the World.
His inclinations are so Noble, and so Answerable to the High Station of so Great a Prince, that his People stand in Admiration of his Person, being equally Charm'd with his Love and Justice, and the Tenderness he shews for.
Historians have debated the nature of "absolutism" in Europe.
Many historians emphasize the growth of state power in this period, especially under Louis XIV of France, but others question whether such a thing as "absolutism" ever existed.
You can draw your own conclusions from the following documents.
The dauphin was tutored by Bishop Bossuet in 1670.
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