The astronomy of Copernicus was integrated with the physics of Galileo and his predecessors thanks to a single explanatory system.
Motion and mechanics are explained by a set of mathematical laws.
The force of attraction is a function of the quantity of matter force of attraction and the cal relationship, whereby the force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter force of attraction.
The universe was unified in one system.
The synthesis prevailed until the distance between them.
The development of better ways of obtaining knowledge was one of the keys to achieving a better understanding of the world.
Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes were influential in describing and explaining improved scientific methods based on experimentation and mathe matical reasoning.
The English politician and writer Francis Bacon was one of the earliest proponents of the new method.
The method of speculative reasoning used to build general theories was rejected by bacon.
The researcher who wants to learn more about leaves or rocks should collect a lot of samples and compare them to derive general principles, rather than speculating about the subject.
There were more speculative methods on the continent.
Rene Descartes discovered in 1619 that there was a perfect correspondence between experimentation and reason.
He figured out that the spatial figures could be expressed as equations.
Descartes's discovery of analytic geometry provided scientists with an important new tool.
Descartes used mathematics to create a vision of the workings of the universe.
Descartes came up with the idea that matter was made up of identical "corpuscules" that were in constant motion.
Nature occurrences could be analyzed as matter.
Descartes's mechanistic view of the universe depended on the idea that a vacuum was impossible so that every action had an equal reaction.
Descartes's idea of a mechanistic universe through the physics of motion was influential despite his hypothesis being proved wrong.
Descartes developed his initial vision into a whole philosophy of knowledge and science.
Descartes said that impressions of the world gained through the senses can sometimes be proved wrong.
Descartes argued that only things about which there is no doubt should be accepted as truths.
Deductive reasoning is the process of moving from general principles to specific truths.
Al substances were reduced to "matter" and "mind" by Descartes's reasoning.
The limitations of antitheoretical empiri cism were shown by the inability of bacon to appreciate the importance of mathematics and his obsession with practical results.
Descartes believed that it was possible to deduce the whole science of medicine from a set of first principles.
The modern scientific method combines the extreme approaches of Descartes and bacon.
Vesalius dissection of a corpse before a crowd of students is depicted in the frontispiece of his work.
This was a revolutionary new hands-on approach for physicians, who usually worked from a theoretical, rather than a practical, understanding of the body.
Vesalius replaced ancient ideas from Greek philosophy with a more accurate account of the structure and function of the body.
The study of the human body was inspired by the scientific revolution which began with the study of the universe.
The authority of the ancient Greek physician's explanation of the body was the same as that of the author of the universe.
The body had four humors.
It was believed that the humors caused il ness.
Paracelsus was an early proponent of the experimental method in medicine and pioneered the use of chemicals and drugs to address what he saw as chemical, rather than humoral, imbalances.
The Flemish physician, who studied secting human bodies, was also an experimentalist.
William Harvey discovered the circulation of blood in 1628.
The modern science of chemistry was founded by an Irishman.
Paracelsus undertook experiments to discover the basic elements of nature, which he believed were composed of infinitely small atoms.
Boyle's law states that the pressure of a gas varies with volume, and he was the first to create a vacuum.
There were many consequences of the rise of modern science.
It led to the rise of the international scientific community.
The members of this com munity were linked by common interests and shared values.
As governments supported and sometimes direct research, the new scientific community became closely tied to the state.
National academies of science were created in London in 1662, Paris in 1666, and Berlin in 1700.
The scientific revolution did not change some things.
New "rational" methods for approaching nature did not question traditional inequalities between the sexes.
Talented noblewomen were able to find niches in study and research when Renaissance courts served as centers of learning.
The rise of a professional scientific community raised barriers for women because the new academies that furnished professional credentials did not accept female members.