Chapter 1 -- Part 1: .2 Themes and Concepts of Biology
An outline is required for some review papers.
The rationale of the work is given in a good introduction.
The researcher will present the hypothesis or research question at the end of the paper in order to justify the work.
The published scientific work of others requires citations following the style of the journal.
It doesn't have to be long to allow another researcher to repeat the experiment and get similar results.
The section will include information on how the researchers made the measurements, the types of calculations they used, and the statistical analyses they used to examine the data.
The materials and methods section does not discuss the experiments.
It is more common to combine the results section with the discussion section in some journals.
The researchers present their results with tables and graphs.
To put the results in the context of previously published scientific research, it is necessary to conduct an extensive literature search.
Proper citations are included in this section as well.
The scientific paper almost certainly answers one or more scientific questions that the researchers stated, but any good research should lead to more questions.
A well-done scientific paper allows the researchers and others to continue with their work.
They summarize and comment on findings that were published as primary literature.
This may sound like a silly question, but it is not always easy to define life.
Some of the characteristics of living entities but lack others are studied by a branch of biology called virology.
Although viruses can cause diseases, they do not meet the criteria that biologists use to define life.
They are not biologists, strictly speaking.
Some biologists look at the early evolution that gave rise to life.
These scientists are excluded from biology because the events that preceded life are not biological events.
Biologists seek answers to these and other questions as they discover new organisms.
These eight characteristics are what define life.
A toad is comprised of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.
Single-celled organisms are very complex and simple.
Body structures with a distinct function are created by tissues.
Organ systems are formed by organs.
The leaves of this sensitive plant will fold when touched.
Plants can bend toward a source of light, climb on fences and walls, or respond to touch.
Microbacteria can move towards or away from light or chemicals.
A negative response is when a person moves away from aStimulus.
You can watch this video to see how plants respond to stimuli, from opening to light, to wrapping a tendril around a branch.
Single-celled organisms reproduce by first duplicating their DNA, and then dividing it equally as the cell prepares to divide to form two new cells.
Special reproductive germline, gamete, oocyte, and sperm cells can be produced by multicellular organisms.
The genes ensure that the offspring will have the same size and shape as the parent.
This fit is a consequence of evolution by natural selection, and biologists refer to it as adaptation.
There are many examples of adaptation, from heat-resistant Archaea that live in boiling hotsprings to the tongue length of a nectar-feeding moth that matches the size of the flower from which it feeds.
The ability to survive to reproduce is enhanced by all adaptation.
The adaptions are not always the same.
Natural selection causes the characteristics of individuals in a population to track changes in the environment.
Organisms grow and develop as a result of specific instructions provided by genes.
This ensures that a species' young will have the same characteristics as their parents.
These kittens have the same genes as their parents and look the same.
Even the smallest organisms need multiple regulatory mechanisms to coordinate internal functions, respond to stimuli, and cope with environmental stresses.
There are two examples of internal functions that are regulated.
Carrying oxygen throughout the body is one of the functions that the Organs perform.
mammals living in ice covered regions maintain their body temperature by generating heat and reducing heat loss through thick fur and a dense layer of fat under their skin
Cells need proper temperature, pH, and concentration of diverse chemicals in order to function properly.
An organisms needs to regulate body temperature through thermoregulation.
The polar bear has body structures that help it survive in cold climates.
Fur, feathers, blubber, and fat are some of the structures that aid in this type of insulation.
In hot climates, organisms use methods such as perspiration in humans or panting in dogs to get rid of excess body heat.