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11 Interest Groups and the Mass Media -- Part 1
People form and join groups to raise their concerns with public officials.
Political parties have legal status in the election process, but interest groups don't.
They don't nominate candidates for public office, but they may support candidates who are sympathetic to their cause.
Membership in interest groups can be restricted or open to anyone who is interested.
Some people belong to interest groups.
Many people are in different interest groups at the same time.
Interest groups are often viewed with suspicion.
Madison believed that the separation of powers under the Constitution would moderate the effect of the elimination of factions.
Several important functions are served by interest groups.
Economic interests are the basis of most interest groups.
Labor groups protect the interests of labor.
The National Association of Manufacturers and the Chamber of Commerce of the United States are examples.
Professional groups hold professional meetings and publish journals.
The National Education Association, the American Medical Association, and the American Bar Association are examples.
The National Grange and the National Farmers' Union are agricultural groups.
Civil rights, consumer protection, crime, and the environment are some of the issues that public interest groups are concerned with.
Attempting to influence policymakers by supplying data to government officials and their staffs to convince them that their case is more deserving than another's.
Several interest groups are lobbying to influence policymakers.
The NAACP used this strategy to argue against segregation in the 1950s, even though they were unsuccessful in gaining the support of Congress.
Bringing attention to an issue or using public relations to gain support for the image of the interest group is a way to appeal to the public.
Corporations and labor unions were not allowed to make direct contributions to candidates for federal office.
Political action committees were formed as political arms of interest groups.
Federal law regulates political action committees; they must register with the federal government, raise money from multiple contributors, and follow strict accounting rules.
Lobbyists were required to register with the clerk of the House of Representatives and the secretary of the Senate if they wanted to influence legislation.
The law only applied to those who tried to influence Congress.
In 1995 Congress passed the Lobbying Disclosure Act, which required registration if lobbying was directed at members of Congress, congressional staff, or policymakers within the executive branch.
The activities and clients of lobbyists had to be disclosed.
The mass media are the only link that specializes in communication between citizens and the government.
The growth of the country, new inventions and technology, and changing attitudes about the role of government are reflected in the development of the mass media in the United States.
The earliest American newspapers were expensive, had small circulations, and were often prepared or financed by political organs.
The growth of newspapers and newspaper circulations can be traced back to improvements in printing, the telegraph, and the rotary press.
Every major city in the United States had at least one daily paper by the 1890s.
Political consequences resulted from circulation wars.
The newspaper competition has gone down.
Many newspapers in the United States went out of business by 2009, and the future of the newspaper was being called into question.
Magazines had smaller circulations with less publication.
The earliest public affairs magazines were published in the late 1800s.
They exposed political corruption and business exploitation with the writings of muckrakers.
They usually substitute for daily newspapers.
Liberal and conservative magazines are read by supporters on both sides.
The use of radio made celebrities of news people.
Franklin Roosevelt broadcasted his "fireside chats" to the American people.
Television has the largest audience of mass media.
Broadcasting journalists became celebrities because of War II television.
Television promoted the careers of politicians such as Joe McCarthy during hearings of the House Unamerican Activities Committee and John Kennedy during his campaign debates against Richard Nixon.
The coverage of the American political system has changed due to the growth of cable TV news.
Media organizations are using the Internet to convey information because of the rapid growth of internet usage.
The World Wide Web has websites for newspapers, magazines, and radio and television stations.
Americans are getting their news from the internet.
In the United States, the mass media are privately owned, giving them more political freedom, but also making them more dependent on advertising profits.
Government regulation of the media affects the broadcast media more than the print media and the Internet.
The FCC is an independent regulatory agency that regulates interstate and foreign communication by radio, television, telephone, telegraph, cable, and satellite.
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 expanded competition and gave these control of the organization and ownership of broadcasting companies.
The mass media are protected by the First Amendment.
An important event has happened within the past 24 hours.
The media decides what to report.
The media executives, news editors, and prominent reporters decide which events to present.
Horse-race journalism focuses on which candidate is winning or losing rather than the issues of the election.
The major news organizations have journalists in major cities and government centers.
One-third of the press in Washington, D.C. is assigned to cover the White House.
The press can get information from the Office of the Press Secretary when they have access to the president.
Prepared texts will be used the way they were written.
Questioning of high-level officials is often practiced.
Information released by officials who are guaranteed anonymity may be used to interfere with the opposition.
The official can be quoted by name.
What the official says can be printed, but may not be attributed to the official.
The official's words can be printed, but they can't be attributed to anyone.
The White House has a tighter control over news stories than Congress does.
The coverage of Congress focuses on the House of Representatives, the Senate, or Congress as an organization.
Confirmation hearings, oversight investigations, or scandals may be covered by news about Congress.
C-SPAN was created to increase coverage of congressional activities.
C-SPAN and C-SPAN II show the proceedings of the House and Senate.
Members of Congress can record radio and television messages.
Critics of the media think the media is biased.
Media owners, publishers, and editors are said to be more conservative than reporters.
Studies show that reporters have a liberal orientation, but the bias tends to be against incumbents.
Journalists tend to pack journalism, with them adopting the viewpoints of other journalists with whom they spend time and exchange information.
People who watch, listen, or listen to news outlets that support political views are often biased.
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