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5 -- Part 2: Impulse and Linear

- The mass of a rocket without fuel.

- We have learned that when a rocket expels fuel in one direction, it moves in the opposite direction.

- The exhaust speeds of mega-newtons 1106 N2 are more than 10 times the speed of sound.
- The impulse to change a rocket's momentum is provided by thrust.
- A long, narrow bal oon can be used to observe the principles of jet propulsion.
- Open the valve and blow up the bal oon.
- The balloon will shoot away in the opposite direction of the air.

- The mass of a rocket is not a constant number but changes gradually.
- It is possible to determine the change in the rocket's speed.

- The main idea behind the jet propulsion method is that when an object is standing on rollerblades, it will accelerate in the opposite direction.

- The fuel needs to be thrown in the same direction.

- The equation is a solution for a problem.

- We apply impulse-momentum ideas to analyze meteorites, radioactive decay in the lungs, and two-dimensional car crashes.
- A meteorite collision with Earth occurred about 50,000 years ago.

- Two different systems are used to answer different questions about a meteorite.

- The site of the meteorite impact 50,000 years ago is called Canyon Diablo Crater.

- The crater is 200 m deep.
- Estimate the change in Earth's velocity as a re sult of the impact and the average force by the meteorite on Earth during the collision.

- On the next page there is a sketch of the process.
- We chose a coordinate system with respect to Earth to analyze Earth's motion.

- To answer the first question, we chose Earth and meteorite.
- We keep track of the dot at the meteorite and use it as a system.
- The axis points to the direction of the meteorite's motion to determine Earth's change in velocity.

- The time interval is used for the col ision.

- To answer the first question, we use the impulse-momentum equation to answer the question, and then we choose the meteorite alone to answer it.

- The first impulse-momentum bar chart shows the process for the Earth-meteorite system to answer the first question.
- It would take Earth 50,000 years to answer the second question, because the mete orite alone is so slow.

- The depth of the crater is estimated by the displacement of the meteorite.
- The impulse-momentum equation is applied to the meteorite's momentum to find the average force by Earth to decrease.

- The ob 10.031 s2 ject of reference shows Earth's initial velocity to be zero.
- The force that Earth exerts on the meteorite is negative-- kilogram.
- The meteorite's initial 5.7 meteorites, radioactive decay, and two-dimensional collision are put together by using momentum.
- 1014 N 3 *108 kg.

- This force will cause an acceleration of a little over 10 m>s2, a very small number.

- Think about your goal when you make a decision about what your system will be.

- The nu clei of some atoms are unstable and can break apart.
- In a process called alpha decay, the nucleus of the atom breaks into a daughter nucleus that is smaller and lighter than the original parent nucleus.
- The daughter and alpha particle are decays into a polonium nucleus.

- Radon is produced by a series of decay reactions in the soil.
- It can enter a home through cracks in its foundation, where it can be breathed in by people, if it diffuses out of the soil.
- Once in the lungs, the radon undergoes alpha decay, releasing fast moving alpha particles that could lead to cancer.
- In the next example, we will use the idea of mo mentum constancy to analyze alpha decay by radon.

- The polonium nucleus has 54 times the mass of the alpha particle.

- There is a sketch at the right.
- The initial state of the system is called the radon nucleus, which converts to the polonium nucleus and the alpha particle in the final state.
- The lung tissue is the object of reference.
- The process is represented by the momentum bar chart.

- The alpha particle is speeding through lung tissue, dislodging electrons and creating ion.

- Francium nuclei can emit either an alpha particle or a beta par ticle.
- The bar chart can be used to help larger particles.

- The col isions have occurred on one axis.
- Motor vehicle accidents often involve two vehicles traveling in opposite directions.
- The ideas of impulse and momentum can still be applied, but we will use one impulse-momentum equation for each coordinate axis.

- A 1600-kg pickup truck is travelling east at 20 m/s while a 1300-kg car is travelling north at 16 m/s.
- The vehicles are tangled together.
- Immediately after the collision, determine the magnitude and direction of the wreck.

- The sketches show the initial and final situations of the vehicles.
- We use a P and C subscript for the pickup and car.
- The initial state is before the collision and the final state after the collision.
- The two vehicles are the system.

- We divide the left side of the second equation by the left in each direction.

- A 33 angle has an angle of 0.65.

- The component equation above was used to deter the speed of the two vehicles after the collision.

- The components of momentum are 11600.

- The two equations give the same result for the final speed.
- They have to decide whether tion is present.

- Both unknowns can be solved by us.

- The meteorite's motion disappears completely when it hits Earth.

- A isolated system system is one in which the objects interact only with each other and not with the environment, or the sum of external forces on it is zero.

- The mass of the system is constant if it is isolated.

- The change in the eq.
- is 2f + g2 isolated.

- Both (c) and (d) will work because of the Earth's gravity.

- A wagon full of medicine is on the street.

- The mass of the obje ct changed.

- A bul et fired at a door makes a hole in the door but doesn't open it.
- The door does not have a hole in it.

- The system's momentum is 3.
- How would you convince someone that the momentum is not constant?

- The cannon-shell system is constant according to a report on traumatic brain injury.

- Without brain damage.

- A bumper that is flexible contains one or more mistakes.

- Jim says that objects can gain and lose momentum.

- Say five important things about momentum.
- What does each statement say?

- Three people are looking at a car.

Which situation does the tennis ball answer in?

- A heavy bar falls onto the bed of a truck.

How many correct answers hit the car?

- Do you remember what "falls 12"?
- A meteorite strikes Earth and causes a crater.

- Does this phenomenon happen?
- If you think the system is correct, choose as many as you can.

- The ball is at rest in the initial state because the meteorite system is not isolated.

- A person is moving on rollerblades and the meteorite ball is in the opposite direction.
- The person is correct that the meteorite is not moving relative to the system.

- A car with a 2000-kWh battery is travelling east at 24 m/s.
- The impulse car will travel west at 21 m/s.
- The cars are locked together.

- The rollerblader is the object of 3 m/s east, 3 m/s west, and the final state is just before the ball hits the ground.

- A friend and you are playing tennis.

- Assume you have a mass of 60 kilograms.
- The spec has a speed of about 1.0 m/s in the aorta.
- The object of reference is the pump.

- You are hitting a tennis ball.

- A train travelling at the same speed on the train tracks.

- Your friend is catching a basketbal.
- The ball traveled through the basket.
- She sticks to the wal by moving her hands straight down.
- The bal has 0.20 m.

- Determine the ball's speed.
- There is a report on trau change.

- The fist exerts force on the head.

- You can determine her speed using this informa creases from 0 to 1.6 m/s.

- You will need to use free-fall to get to the door.
- The water shoots out at a rapid rate and the help can answer the question in a matter of seconds.

- The water will hit the ga 7.
- Water exerts on the wal.

- The windstorm moves at a speed of 30 m/s.

- At half the speed, make a list of moving.
- The carts are sticking together.

- When walking at your 21 estimate your momentum.
- An egg breaks as it hits the normal pace off a kitchen counter.

- The counter has a mass of 10.
- An apple is from a tree.

- The apple is the same size.

- The 12 is shown using the impulse-momentum equation.

- The stopping time interval for the col ision the equation from Problem 22 to determine the necessary is 0.10 s, and the impulse exerted by the support on the van is percent change in the distance so that the average 7.5 * 103 N # s.

- The bal is the system.

- You try the bal s from Problem 33 again.

- One ball knocks the ruler off; the other does not.

What assumptions did the ruler make?

- You have an air bag F of your hand.

How deep was the collision?

10.20 kg21100 m>s2 is the same as 10.20 N210.40 s2

What is the floor?

- Two carts on an air track are separated by a compressed spring.
- The spring is open.

- Pick out your object of reference.

- An expression for the change in the ball's momentum can be created using the bar chart.

- Represent the process with a bar.
- A baseball bat contacts a baseball for chart for the bal.
- The average force exerted by the bat on the bal changes over time.

One bal hits the ground and reverses direction, what is the ball's speed as it recovers almost to the original height?

- A tennis bal is travelling at a speed of 40.0 m/s 51.
- I hit a wal and rebounded in the opposite direction.
- The time sion, the knee, thighbone, and hip can sustain a force no interval for the col ision is about 0.013 s. Make a list of the quantities that can cause the injuries.
- This information can be used to determine four of them.
- When knee hits the dashboard, assume it stops.
- The ball should rebound at the same speed.

- A cannon is mounted on the back of a ship.

- A team is playing a sport.
- A player with a 72 kilogram body can be fractured by a 900-N force lasting 6.0 ms who catches a bal traveling at 18 m/s.

How much time is spent hitting a face with a player's skates?

- The stopping time is doubled by the mask.

What was the child's speed in the horizontal direc?

- A coal car on the Great Northern Railroad hit the steering wheel.
- The average force under a coal storage bin is 2.0 m/s.

- A cart is moving on a horizontal track when a heavy bag combined force is exerted by the seat belt and shoulder strap.

- Represent the process with a bar chart.

- A cart is moving.
- The stopping distance is assumed to be the same as the initial off the cart distance.
- If you made other assumptions, tell them.

- If a force greater than answer is greater than the impulse-momentum bar chart, an apple will bruise.
- What is exerted on it?

- 56 is the fastest server in women's tennis.
- Venus Williams had a serve of 204 km/h at the anced on William Tell's head.
- The French Open has a speed of 50.
- The mass of her racket would be m/s before it passed through the apple and 40 m/s after.
- The mass of the ball was 57 g.

- Any assump of potassium has radioactive nuclei.
- You made radioactive tions.

- There is an elevator with a broken cable.
- The daughter nucleus is moving at 200 m/s at the bottom of the elevator shaft if the elevator is falling at 20 m/s.
- Indicate any assumptions the evator has on your body.
- The daughter's mass is about 70,000 times greater than the particle.

Do these assumptions mean that 10 km/s crashed into the Gulf of Mexico?

- You jump from the window of a burning hotel to save the dinosaurs.
- Estimate the age force that the net exerts on you if you enter it at a meteorite.
- If you made assumptions in your calculations.

- Three friends are playing beach vol eybal.

- The bal is bumped by the length of the players skid.

- A car is travelling at 24 m/s.

- While ice skating east at 13.6 m/s, you have a crash into a person.
- The car you are travelling in has a mass of 60 kg.
- If the col is east at 8.0 m/s.

- After the col ision, you hang on to each other.
- What direction and at what speed are you traveling?
- The nail goes into the board.

- The stopping distance of the hammerhead is 90 km.

- The astronauts only has a 0.50-kg wrench.
- He gets back to the ship at a speed of 300 m/s.
- There is a wooden block resting on a horizontal surface.
- He must throw the wrench for block slides to stop the spaceship.

- Nolan Ryan may be the fastest basebal pitcher of all time as he tries to get back to the spaceship.

- The force back to the spaceship can be estimated using the impulse-momentum equation.
- She removed her oxygen tank that Ryan used to exert himself on the bal.
- It is thrown away from the ship at a speed of 15 m/s relative to the assumptions you made.

- Any assumptions you made about the rocket's size are thrown out.

- The helicopter of the U.S. Army has a speed of 200 m/s.
- The fuel package travels at 50 m/s opposite the direc of 263 m2.

- The rocket just ejected fuel.
- Choose a reasonable air mass displaced as the system, construct an impulse-momentum bar chart downward each second and the speed of that air in order for the rocket's increase in speed and the helicopter to hover.
- Indicate any assumptions you made.

- A 2045-kg sports utility vehicle hits the rear end of a 1220-kg charts for both situations using the rocket without the fuel as the car rests at a stop sign.
- The car and SUV are locked up.

- Three experiments to see if 77 is true.

- After the collision, they lock together.

- Estimate the recoil speed of Earth.
- The wind ants of Canada and the United States jumped against one another at the Wil is Tower in Chicago.
- The straight upward from Earth's surface is approximately 80 m wide.
- The average force of the air on the side of the building is indicated.
- The tions that you made.

- direction at the things you did.

- Write and solve a problem and move at 60 percent of the first cart's speed.
- The carts stick together after the collision.

- A prisoner hides in a laundry truck in an attempt to escape from the prison where he is being held.
- When the truck is stopped at the gate, the Space Shuttle is surprised.
- A guard goes above Earth's sur the truck and handcuffs him.
- The shuttle has two solid fuel boosters.
- The guard has a heartbeat detector.

- A heartbeat detector is used to detect heartbeats caused by the first stage of ascent.
- Blood is after launch at 48,000-m above sea level.
- The body recoils slightly when the boosters are pumped upward to the aorta, and then it moves up in free fall to an altitude of approximately 70,000 m. The body's are transferred to the inside of the truck after they are recovered from the ocean.
- The shuttle's five engines provide 3.46 and the sors on the outside of the truck signal N of thrust during liftoff.

- The computer program compares the signals from the truck to wavelets.
- The number below is closest to the heartbeat's acceleration.

- The average vertical accretion is 80.

- After launch, the boosters are released from the shuttle.

- A heartbeat detector relies on a phone.

What happened to the Space Shuttle 10 s after liftoff?

- It is assumed that the free-fal grav 84.
- The amount of blood moving upward in the aorta at itational acceleration is about 9.6 m>s2 down.

- When it reaches 100 m/s, it reverses direction in 0.16 s.

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