RIse of Democracy Vocab Pt. 3
A tyrant is an abusive ruler who uses their absolute power to oppress and control. They are above the law and can do as they please. Joseph Stalin, a leader of the Soviet Union, was one such ruler who exercised corruption and brutality.
The Torah is the first five books of the Tanakh, the Hebrew holy book. Similar to the Bible, the Torah describes the teachings of Judaism as written by the prophet, Moses. The word “Torah” means “instructions” in Hebrew and sets a standard for how an individual should live.
Hebrews are the ancient Israelites who escaped to Egypt, as stated in the Torah. They were the first to believe in Christian and Jewish teachings. The father of the Hebrews was Avraham Avinu (Father Abraham), who is considered to have founded the religion.
A prophet is a person who is considered to be in contact with a superior deity. It is believed that prophets have the power to speak through the divine being, and carry out His will as a messenger. The messages, also known as prophecies, are highly valued and respected.
The Qur’an is the religious text of Islam, the monotheistic religion of Muslims. In Islamic teachings, the book is considered a way of direct communication to Allah, their one and only God. It is believed that Muhammad recieved the will from Allah by an angel, and wrote down His words into the holy text. Like the Torah and Bible, the Qur’an explains how people should live their lives and is highly valued by Muslims.
Polis, meaning “city,” applies to the city-states of Ancient Greece such as Athens and Sparta. At the time, individual poleis were made up of a protected urban center with land surrounding it. This was important, as battles against other city-states for power and territory were quite common.
Socrates was an Athenian philosopher credited with being one of the first new philosophers of the Western world. During his time, Socrates would question students without ever giving any answers, making them second-guess the world around them. As a result, Socrates was sentenced to death by hemlock for corrupting the students and disrespecting the Gods.
The Socratic Method
The Socratic Method is a form of constructive debating between people to encourage deep thinking and reasoning. It was invented by the Greek philosopher, Socrates, and is used to urge individuals to look beyond the obvious and develop more complex arguments.
Plato was a Greek philosopher who founded the first philosophy school in Athens. He was a student of Socrates and a teacher of Aristotle. He documented everything, and it is because of him that we know about Socrates. One of his most well known pieces of work is the Republic, which expresses his opinion that a philosopher king should be in power.
The Republic is considered Plato’s best piece of work. It describes the concepts of justice and government. The book expresses his thoughts that the wise should rule, and that a philosopher should be king.
Aristotle, also known as the “Father of Western philosophy,” was a philosopher of Ancient Athens. He attended the Academy of Athens for twenty years, studying under the instruction of Plato. Though among Plato’s top students, Aristotle is known for turning down Plato’s theory of forms. Later, he continued on to educate Alexander the Great and established a library of his own. He also founded the Lyceum, an educational institution.