I like to know where I am going before I go on a vacation.
I want to play it safe when it comes to investing.
I'm not afraid to take a lot of risk when it comes to investing.
High sensation seekers like spicy, sour, and crunchy foods more than low sensation seekers.
It is likely that this preference is due to the variety of foods that can be found.
High sensation seekers use more drugs and alcohol than low sensation seekers.
People in high-risk occupations such as firefighters, race car drivers, riot-squad police officers, and emergency room nurses tend to score high on this scale.
The expected differences between sports and recreation are similar.
Gambling is related to sensation seeking.
It is important to identify risk takers early in life.
Children who were high risk takers were more likely to cause accidents.
The sensation-seeking scores of young drivers seem to be related to their intention to exceed highway speed limits as well as their tendency to be more aggressive compared to their peers.
Differences in behavior related to sensa tion seeking may have a genetic basis.
The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is broken down by the monoamine oxidase.
There is a correlation between MAO levels and sensation and the scale seeking behavior.
Paragraph 2002 indicates that low levels of MAO and high levels of norepinephrine are related to high sensation-seeking scores.
The gamblers who are known for their impulsiveness and risk taking exhibit low levels of MAO.
Dopamine may be involved in behaviors introduced in this chapter.
This finding could help explain the association between sensation seeking and use of a variety of drugs.
The findings are intriguing, despite the fact that a correlation between a biological variable and a personality variable does not prove causality.
A growing body of research shows the importance of biological factors in personality characteristics.
The study of twins can shed light on personality quirks.
Jim Springer and Jim Lewis were adopted into separate families.
They both liked math, but not spelling.
Both had law enforcement training and worked as deputy sheriffs.
They vacationed in Florida, drove Chevrolets, and had dogs named Toy.
Both Linda and Betty were married to other women.
Both of them have headaches late in the afternoon.
Twins who were separated at birth are depicted in this story.
Twin pairs like those just described have been recruited by the University of Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart.
Twin pairs that are separated by friends, relatives or the twins themselves are brought to the attention of the researchers.
Write down your answers before you read further.
The twins shown here are studying at the University of Minnesota.
Many of the twins reported similar experiences and behaviors.
The story of the Jim twins is dramatic, but we should ask if the sim ilarities are coincidences.
During the lengthy testing the participants had many opportunities to discover similarities in their behaviors.
In Chapter 9, it was stated that identical twins have the same genes as your brother or sister.
Twins share the same genes, so we would expect their personality to be the same.
There is a problem in conducting research on twins, which is that they may be treated differently than other twins.
We don't know if the similarities between identical twins are due to their identical heredity or to their environments.
The separation of twins early in life allows researchers to understand the effects of nature and nurture.
The results of a study of 44 pairs of identical twins who were separated early in life were reported by the University of Minnesota.
The Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire yields 11 scales and was completed by the twins.
The correlations for identical twins reared apart and for those reared together are very small.
The correlations are the same if the twins were reared apart or together.
We talked about possible genetic influences on the Big Five earlier.
A study was conducted in Germany and Poland.
The twin's personality was assessed by two different raters.
There was a correlation of.63 between the raters and their peers.
The twins' self-report ratings correlated with the peer ratings.
The researchers concluded that personality measured by self-ratings or peer ratings shows a genetic influence, with no evidence for a shared environmental influ ence.
Similar results were obtained in a study of twins in Canada and Germany, which the researchers interpreted as support for ge netic influences on personality traits across cultures.
Twins reared together and reared apart.
The personality characteristics are determined by the achievement role.
The Big Five traits were assessed.
The source is based on Angleitner, Riemann, and Strelau.
Half of the personality traits are not shared in identical twins.
Researchers focused on differences across families in trying to explain siblings' differences.
The environment shared by siblings is not as important as the nonshared environment.
Each child experiences the environment differently and these nonshared environmental factors seem to be more impor tant than shared experiences.
Survey results and naturalistic observations show that parents may not treat each child differently, despite social pressure to do so.
A lot of our personality may be determined by genetics.
The evolutionary perspective predicts that the aspects of our personality that help us adapt to environmental demands will be passed on to future generations.
According to the theory of psy chologist David Buss, evolution has an impact on the type of people that men and women choose as dates and mates.
Buss thinks that women will choose men with good sources of food, shelter and protection.
In humans, resources can take many forms.
Hard-working, ambitious, energetic, and persevering are some of the personality characteristics that appear to correlate with achievement potential.
Buss believes that women will reject dates and sexual overtures from men who do not meet all of the criteria.
According to the evolution ary argument, males should come to value and view as attractive those physical and behavioral cues in potential mates that correlate with female reproductive capacity.
Perpetuation of a per son's genes via his or her offspring is a key underlying principle.
Women seek men with resources in order to increase the chances of survival because they produce only a limited number of offspring.
Men seek a number of temporary mates or seek a single long-term mate in order to perpetuate their genes.
In either case, reproductive ability is the main characteristic that men seek, and Buss believes that age and health are two important indicators of this characteristic.
One study that exemplifies the research support for Buss's theory tested the role of salary in date selection by men and women.
They predicted that willingness to date would increase as sal ary increased and that salary would be more important to women.
In three groups, male and female participants rated opposite-sex pictures in terms of willingness to date.
In the lowest salary group, scores were the least willingness to date and increased at the next two levels.
The women were more willing to date at the highest level of salary.
Genetics present at birth can have an influence on our personality.
There is a very different approach to under standing personality.
Sigmund Freud thought that our early experiences set the stage for personality throughout life, but his focus was on how unconscious factors could determine our personality.
According to heritability estimates between 20% type and personality, William sheldon suggested a relationship between body teristics.
Both types of twins were the same.
A high score on a test designed for twins is likely if their personality scores were not related.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), a neurologist, developed a theory of personality that emphasized unconscious factors and a therapy for patients with abnormal behaviors.
Most people know the name Sigmund Freud.
You should recognize Freud's impact if you have.
Freud's views and theories have found their way into several academic disciplines as well as into everyday speech.
Understanding the times in which Freud lived is important to understanding Freud.
Freud was born to Jewish parents in Austria in 1856.
The Victorian era was notorious for its views of sexuality.
Freud was prevented from pursuing a career as a scientist because of extreme anti-Semitic prejudice.
He reluctantly went into private practice as a neurologist because his future looked bleak and he needed money to get married.
Women with hysterical disorders were most of Freud's patients.
Freud proposed that these disorders were caused by psychological conflicts.
Freud thought that the events had actually happened, but later realized they were fantasies.
He thought his patients couldn't differentiate between what happened earlier in their lives and their sexual de sires.
Some critics believe Freud uncovered evidence of sexual abuse of children, which he was either unwilling to report or unable to accept as true.
Freud believed that his patients didn't know about the sex.
The influence of conflicts in the form of physical and psychological symptoms would continue if they were not brought to conscious awareness.
Freud's theory is based on three concepts: psychic determinism, instincts, and levels of consciousness.
Let's take a look at each concept.
Freud believed that events that happened earlier in our lives determine a lot of our behavior.
Sexual conflicts can cause physical symptoms in adulthood.
Before reading further, give these questions some thought and write down a theory for your answer.
A Freudian slip is an example of the concept of psychic determinism.
According to actions.
You can imagine attending a boring party that drags on for hours.
Many of us who have attended meetings have felt this way before.
The same way that a car is propelled by the energy contained in gasoline, Freud believed we are driven by certain instincts.
Freud proposed that there are different levels of consciousness.
The techniques of psychodynamic therapy are used to gain access to the unconscious.
Freud believes that conscious thought is only a small part of our inner life and that unconscious forces are the main cause of our behavior.
According to Freud's comprehensive theory, the mind consists of three separate entities but it is the source of instincts interacting elements: the id, the ego, and the superego.
The elements of the mind that operate according to reality are examined in the next sections.
The id is a psychodynamic theory that has no concern for the needs or desires of others or society as a whole.
The idealistic ego ideal is reined in by a new structure, as the id's relentless demands for instant gratification show.
The ego must tolerate some delay and frustration because our surroundings provide immediate gratification of our needs.
Imagine driving down a highway and exceeding the speed limit.
You can see the red lights of the state police cruiser in your mirror.
Your heart beats fast and you start to sweat as you wonder if the trooper is after you.
Your heartbeat returns to normal when the cruiser zips by on its way to catch a real speeder.
You reacted the way you did because you were going to be punished.
This feeling came from your conscience.
The moral part of the superego tells us when we have violated our parents' and society's rules.
The conscience exacts punishment for the possibility of violating those rules for many of us.
The positive side of the superego is represented by the ego ideal.
The ego ideal motivates us to strive for perfectness.
The id, ego, and superego are similar to a car with special features.
This car is designed to pull both to the left and to the right side of the road at the same time.
The id and the superego are represented by the left and right wheels.
The id tries to satisfy basic biological drives while the superego tries to impose moralistic goals in their place.
The id and the superego are irrational and unrealistic.
The driver is responsible for making adjustments when the id and superego are fighting.
The ego is trying to find a middle road between the two forces.
The ego is trying to deal with the demands of the id and the superego.
The conflict lies beneath the surface in the unconscious, if you recall the model of the mind.
Imagine that the egos are in conflict.
Give these to describe mostly unconscious methods of reducing anxiety or guilt, and write down your answers before reading further.
The first stage of psychosexual anxiety or guilt is a warning to the ego that conflict is occurring.
The effect of defense mechanisms is to reduce guilt.
People who claim to be morally repulsed by homosexuality, yet have been found to be secretively engaged in development in which the fixation homosexual behaviors and lifestyle is a common example.
The focus of pleasure is the anus vices of high-price prostitutes, which hardly seemed to be and conflict often occurs as efforts.
The use of defense mechanisms can be helpful or harmful depending on how much a person relies on them.
An individual's personality develops through a series of stages stretching from infancy to adulthood according to Freud.
The oral, anal, phallic, and genital stages are the five stages of psychosexual development.
Babies and toddlers can be seen putting objects in their mouths.
The child's personality may become fixated if oral needs are delayed.
fixation at the oral stage can be seen in behaviors such as chewing on pencils and in personality characteristics such as excessive dependency, optimism, and gullibility.
The erogenous zone shifts to the anus when the child gains muscular control.
The key to this stage is toilet training.
The way parents approach toilet training can affect their children.
These people are the first stage of Freud's psycho ous.
The child may rebel if the parents are strict and demanding.
Defense mechanisms protect the ego from fear.
Despite overwhelming evidence that the cancer that is anxiety-arousing and behaving is not treatable, the parent is still convinced that it did not exist.
Proposing socially acceptable feelings or you did not do well on an exam in your economics reasons.
Defending against unacceptable feelings can cause a person to be attracted to pornographic material and behavior by showing the opposite yet being repulsed by the thought of such material.
Children enjoy fondling their genitals during the third stage of psychosexual activity.
The name of this complex is derived from a character in an ancient Greek Process who killed his father and married his mother, and when he discovered the phallic stage in which a boy the truth, he gouged out his eyes and spent the rest of his life.
The young boy is afraid his father will retaliate for these forbidden sexual and aggres.
He tries to be like his father in his behavior, values, attitudes, and sexual orientation when the process occurs.
According to Freud, a successful resolution of the Oedipal complex leads to wishes for her father to have a male sex role.
A girl's attraction to her father is based on a fantasy that she will get a penis from him.
She fantasizes about having a baby as a means of gaining an organ.
The girl begins to identify with her mother when she begins to suppress her sexual desires.
The female superego ends up weaker than the male because of Oedipal castration.
This belief has not been supported by leads to normal adult sexual development research.
Children enter a period when their sexual interests are suppressed.
Sexual pleasure comes from heterosexual relationships.
The selfish qualities of earlier stages of development are still experienced by adolescents at the beginning of the genital stage.
The foundation for adult relationships is set when they develop greater ability to establish such relationships as they mature.
The study chart summarizes Freud's stages of psychosexual development.
Both supporters and critics of Freud.
An outline on the topic formerly his greatest admirers who once advocated his views, but for a variety of reasons, was written by some of his most outspoken critics.
They did not accept Freud's emphasis on the id and the role of sexual motives as influence on modern psychology.
One of the best-known neo-Freudians, Carl Jung, split from Freud on more than one issue and developed his own psychodynamic viewpoint.
Jung didn't want to place as much emphasis on sexuality as Freud did.
Jung put more emphasis on the unconscious than Freud did, and he stressed a more generalized life force.
These Archetypes cause us to respond to events in our environment in different ways.
The life force of an extravert is turned outward.
The word association test was developed as a personality assessment device.
Jung believed that an unconscious emotional problem might exist if a person took a long time to respond to a word.
Karen Horney, an early follower of Freudian thinking, rejected several Freudian notions and added several of her own.
She saw personality problems as a result of basic anxiety that all people share.
In an unfriendly world, we feel isolated and helpless.
We want to reduce anxiety.
The type of situation that is producing the anxiety should affect the choice of which behavior pattern a person uses.
A person's behavior becomes abnormal when he or she only uses one adjustment pattern.
The Vienna Psychoanalytic Society ejected Alfred Adler because of his disagreements with Freud.
Freud emphasized the sexual drive in explaining personality, according to Adler.
He said the primary drive is social.
The young child is weak when compared to adults.
The effect of this comparison is that the child tries to overcome the feelings of being inferior throughout the rest of his or her life.
People develop different lifestyles to achieve superiority.
They want to develop new skills and abilities that lead to a sense of superiority.
Adler shifted the emphasis of personality theory from the id to the ego in order to gain control over others.
The Greek philosopher Demosthenes was embarrassed by his stuttering as a child, so he spent years practicing speaking clearly and becoming a great orator.
The self was the most important part of his personality.
It is always trying for unity.
We possess free will, so we can mold our own destinies.
Adler was the first theorist to stress the importance of birth order as a determinant of personality.
His system lacks hard data and replicability because it is mostly based on anecdotes.
Freud's ideas about sexuality in children met with strong negative reactions when they were first published.
The idea of viewing children as sexual beings was repulsed by most people.
About 300 copies of Freud's book on dreams were sold when it was published.
Freud's ideas have had a lasting impact.
Many of Freud's proposals, such as unconscious influences on emotional responses, are supported by research.
Psychoanalysis concepts and neural pathways in the brain have begun to be linked in research.
Freud's con cept of oppression has not stood up to scrutiny.
Many people don't seem to be able to forget painful and anxiety-inducing thoughts, rather than relegating them to the unconscious.
It is difficult to conduct research on psychody namic concepts.
Freud did not specify the conditions that might lead to fixations, so it is almost impossible to examine the effect of parenting practices on fixations.
The tests have had mixed results.
Freud's theory is based on the study of a small number of dis turbed people, who may not provide the basis for generalizations applicable to most people.
Many of the patients that Freud treated were women, yet he developed a theory that dealt primarily with male sexuality, making generalizations difficult.
His method of collecting data was not well received by researchers.
Freud sat behind the patient, who was relaxing on a couch.
Freud was listening to what the patient was saying.
After the session was over, Freud didn't write anything down about what the patient had said.
Confidence in many critics was not guaranteed by subjectivity.
Freud's entire system is questionable because he never verified the information that his patients gave him.
He used this information to build his theory.
Freud's views of women have been criticized by many psychologists.
Freud was the first to outline a stage theory of develop ment and to identify key influences at each stage, and he drew attention to the importance of early childhood experiences.
Freud drew attention to the impact of sexuality on human behavior.
At a time when the public wanted to keep sexuality hidden, it took courage for him to offer his ideas.
The importance of unconscious factors in determining behavior was noted by him.
We don't know the reasons behind our behavior.
One of the enduring contributions of psychodynamic theory is the concept of the unconscious.
Freud's work popularized counseling and psychotherapy in the United States and around the world.
Critics note that Freud's theory focused on concern for one's own desires, irresponsibility, and the denigration of women.
Freud believed that women were more vain than men, and that they had little sense of justice, due to the lack of a penis.
Freud's belief in uncon scious instinctual drives may have overstated the case for such influences.
A number of psychological perspectives developed in opposition to psychodynamic theory.
Compared with Freud and his followers, the proponents of these perspectives had very different views on per sonality.
We look at personality from a variety of perspectives.
Freud said that behaviors, feelings, and thoughts occur during the phallic stage.
Freud is credited with pointing out the influence of early structures of the mind occur beneath the level of conscious childhood experiences and with developing a stage theory of awareness.
A police cruiser is in front of you as you drive to your appointment.
Behavior theory attempts to explain human personality.
Its approach is vastly different from the other theories.
Skinner and the other behaviorists don't want to look for inner forces that affect a person's personality.
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