In 1942, federal agencies subjected matically, as factories, shipyards, almost everything Americans ate, wore, or used to and other defense work drew millions of citizens rationing or regulation.
Small towns and rural areas had the first major scarcity.
97 percent of America's imports were cut off due to the Japanese conquest of Malaysia and the Dutch people's distance from their hometowns.
The made wartime cities were vibrant and exciting.
Around the war effort, the government rationed tires, so many clock work shifts kept people on the streets night and the nation's 30 million car owners put their cars in stor day.
People wore out their shoes as they walked.
Meat, butter, sugar, and other foods were rationed by 1943.
One-quarter of the population bought items on ethnicities mixed in the booming cities because of migration and the complicated rationing and coupon system.
Millions of African Americans left the rural South for nylon stockings and meat in the black market.
The location of people's homes was determined by the war.
Detroit's families were often involved in violence in the armed services.
In June 1943, a riot incited by southern-born lowed them to training bases.
The West was struck by racial conflict as well.
Half of them moved to another state during the war.
One of them was a member of the youth gangs.
After working in a shell-loading plant in Kentucky, Viola moved to a defense plant in Michigan.
Pachucas favored Polish Americans.
They were the first people with long coats, huarache sandals, and pompadour hairdos.
California had the largest share of war zoot suit in the war.
The state welcomed nearly three million people in Los Angeles in June 1943 and grew by 53 percent during the gang's four-year war.
One-tenth of all federal dollars flowed into Mexican American neighborhoods, and the state of California attacked zoot-suiters and turned out one-sixth of all war materials.
The City Council passed an ordi Bay and people went where the defense jobs were: to Los Angeles bias, Los Angeles police officers arrested only Mexican Angeles, San Diego, and cities around San Francisco American youth.
The wearing of the zoot suit was banned in some towns.
The wartime migra tion had doubled.
New York, Illinois, and Ohio attracted men and women to establish communities because of the opportunities created by other industrial states.
The U.S. Office of War Information promoted everything from food rationing to car-pooling during World War II.
The United States Office of Price Administration/Northwestern University Library is where we saved for the new milk machine and deep-well pump.
After the war, we're going to have a lot of new improvements.
Our son will help us pick them out when he comes home.
We will have the money to pay for them.
We are saving money in War Bonds.
It was hard, but we felt like we were doing our part, they were moved around a lot, and we didn't want the people we knew to do their part.
There were many secrets.
The items that were hard to come by were sugar, coffee, gasoline, and meat.
We had ration books.
We had to use them less because we didn't want the enemy every so often.
We want to get information.
We had radios and record players, and when we could afford it, we went to the movies.
When we went to a movie, we only saw newsreel footage in the theaters.
We'd get in the movies free if we looked at sources 1, 2, and 3, who created them, and what they said about metal and cans.
She would save it and we would bring it to a place.
The victory garden program as well as war efforts were rationed.
The oral histories add to your under because we had sugar.
Different things were rationed.
It was makeup for the legs.
Young Latino men wearing distinctive zoot suits were attacked by servicemen in Los Angeles during a four-day riot in June 1943, which was seen as a sign of gang membership and a delinquent youth culture.
Scores of zoot-suiters were arrested by the police.
A group of handcuffed young Latino men are about to board a Los Angeles County sheriff's bus to go to court.
The wide-legged pants at the ankle are a hallmark of the zoot suit.
The so-called zoot-suit riot was a sign of cracks in wartime unity.
The gay rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s made these communities centers of New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Dallas.
The Congress of Industrial Organizations sponsored the opening of the labor canteen in Washington, D.C. in 1944.
Wartime migration brought people from all over the country.
New possibilities were opened by migration.
African American neighborhoods grew dramatically; urban populations grew younger and more mobile; and gay and lesbian communities began to flourish and become more visible.
Some came out under fire, but most kept their sexuality a secret from the rest of the war.
Although there was no authority because army officers, doctors, and psychi disloyal or seditious activity among the evacuees, few atrists opposed the plan.
"A Jap's a Jap," snapped der that was grounds for discharge.
The officer charged with defense of the West Coast was General John DeWitt.
The relocation plan shocked Japanese Americans, unlike World War I, which evoked widespread harass more than two-thirds of whom were Nisei; that is, their ment of German Americans, World War II produced parents were immigrants, but they were native-born relatively little condemnation of European Americans.
The families were only given a few days to dispose of their property.
It had taken a lifetime to build.
One-third of the population of Hawaii was made up of Japanese Americans who were imprisoned, and American citizens who were not.
They were not imprisoned after the attack on numbers.
The West Coast was calm.
The Hawaiian economy could not have attacks because of the unskilled labor they provided, and California's long history of racial animosity was not affected.
There were cracks in the relocation policy.
The hysteria against the Japanese agricultural labor shortage caused the government to fur Americans, who numbered only 112,000, who had no lough seasonal farmworkers from the camps as early political power.
4,300 students were allowed to attend the Pacific coast states.
There is a threat to public safety at Tule Lake.
As part of the forced relocation of 112,000 Japanese Americans, Los Angeles photographer Toyo Miyatake and his family were sent to Manzanar, a camp in the California desert east of the Sierra Nevada.
Miyatake began photographing the camp with a handmade camera.
Miyatake received permission from the authorities to document life in the camp, which included births, weddings, deaths and high school graduations.
In order to communicate the injustice of internment, he took staged photographs, such as this image of three young boys behind barbed wire with a watchtower in the distance.
This outcome would have crippled distinction in Europe.
A student took the United States to war.
The combination of sity of Washington, Hirabayashi was a religious pacifist American intervention, the perseverance of Britain, who had registered with his draft board as a conscien and the profound civilian and military sacrifice of the tious objector.
The Soviet Union decided the outcome of the conflict and he turned himself in to the FBI.
The character of the postwar world was shaped by me.
The leaders who became known as the Big from the West Coast on the basis of "military neces Three -- President Franklin Roosevelt, Prime Minister sity" but avoided ruling on the constitutionality of the Winston Churchill of Great Britain and the premier incarceration program avoided ruling on the constitutionality of the Civil liberties in wartime were scored by the Court's decision under Joseph Stalin.
Stalin was not a party to the Atlantic Congress and issued a public apology in 1988, but he disagreed with some Japanese Americans who had been internees.
The Allies had differing opinions about military strategy and timing.
The Big Three made defeating Fighting and Winning the War Germany their top military priority, but they differed over how to do it.
World War II was a war for control of the world.
If the Germans had invaded the Soviet Union, they would have dominated the whole of Europe and Stalingrad before being stopped by the Russians.
The Allies suffered one defeat after Germany through France after Stalin wanted the British and Americans to open a second front.
German armies pushed deep into Soviet terri Roosevelt informally assured Stalin that the Allies would comply in 1942, but he opposed an early and rich oil region of the Caucasus.
German forces began an offensive in North Africa in order to support American war production.
Stalin wanted to seize the canal for eighteen months.
After D-Day, how long did the European campaign last?
In November 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to support the Allies.
In the Battle of Stalingrad, the Soviets halted the return of Stalin's promise to join the fight against the Germans in order to allow the Russian army to Japan.
Both sides followed the agreement, but pushed west.
The German army was driven out of the Soviet Union by the British and Americans by early 1944 because of Stalin's long delay.
More than 10,000 Allied troops were killed or wounded on June 6, 1944, when they invaded the beaches of Normandy.
In a month, 1 million Allied troops arrived.
Edward R. learned of the invasion at 3 A.M. Eastern Time.
The well-known radio journalist whose reports from war-torn London had gripped the nation
"The eyes of the world are upon you," Eisenhower told the men as they prepared to invade the European mainland.
Hitler's Germany reached its greatest extent in 1942, when Nazi forces occupied much of western Russia.
The German advance at Leningrad and Stalingrad was halted in late 1942.
The Allied forces had driven the Germans from North Africa and launched an invasion of Sicily and the Italian mainland by early 1943.
The American and British divisions fought in North Africa.
When the European war ended in 1945, Allied troops were under the control of General Eisenhower in northern Italy.
It was a costly mistake to defeat the German Afrika.
Korps is led by a general.
When American, British, and Canadian soldiers hit the troops who were far outmatched in skill and orga beaches of Normandy, they suffered terrible casualties and took control of Italy, but secured a beachhead.
When the British and Americans invaded France in June 1944, the Russians had liberated eastern Poland and most of southeastern Europe.
By the end of 1944, British and American forces were ready to invade Germany from the west, and the Russians were ready to do the same from the east.
On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered.
In December 1944, they mounted a final offensive, Much to the Allies' advantage, they never faced more in Belgium, the so-called Battle of the Bulge, before being pushed back across the Rhine River into Germany.
On the eastern front, American and British troops drove toward the Germans.
Allied Berlin was liberated from the west in August, while the soviets liberated Paris in September.
When Allied troops advanced into Poland and Germany in the spring of 1945, they killed 305,000 civilians and soldiers and injured 780,000.
The American naval forces scored Jews had been put to death, along with another 6 mil two crucial victories, at that dire moment.
All aircraft carriers were undamaged by the photographs of the Nazi death camps.
The Battle of the Coral Sea was halted by the Japanese in 1942 because the bodies were stacked like cordwood and the survivors were barely alive.
The margin of victory was provided by the Nazi persecution of German Jews in the 1930s.
It was well known in the United States.
When the U.S. military command began to flee Europe, the United States refused to take them in.
FDR refused to go to the American port.
The American bombing of the Japanese home Eastern European Jews resulted in millions of losses for the Japanese military.
Anti-Semitism was widespread on both sides of the conflict.
Tens of thousands of Japanese soldiers fought at large on the small islands of Iwo Jima and State Department.
The immigration restriction caused the death of 13,000 U.S. Marines and caused the isolationist attitudes of 46,000 more.
Desperate to halt the American advance in the 1930s, Japanese pilots flew suicidal responsibility for the fate of the refugees.
The State Department crashed their bomb-laden planes into American ships in order to see the national interest.
States were involved in the war in the Pacific.
The anti-Asian sentiment in the United States was reawakened by the attack on Pearl in 1944, which was led by Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau.
The Japanese were seen as "yellow monkeys" by many who helped move 200,000 European Jews to safe havens in the US.
The War in the Pacific was seen as a sign of racism by the Japanese.
They had sex with Japanese soldiers and waged a campaign against Germany because of their brutal attacks on China.
The American prisoners in the Philippines were able to cripple the American battle fleet at Pearl Harbor with their own sense of racial superiority.
Anti-Japanese Japanese quickly expanded into the South Pacific, with the United States becoming a trusted ally as the island nation became a trusted ally.
In the 1960s, Japanese forces advanced into Southeast racism to help the U.S. win the war in Asia.
Malaya was threatening Australia and India.
The surrender of the U.S. forces in the Philippines in the winter of 1945 came after the American navy advanced on Japan in the 1942.
The Japanese extended their domination in the Pacific after the Pearl Harbor attacks.
The Japanese flag flew as far east as the Marshall and Gilbert islands and as far south as the Solomon Islands.
The Philippines, much of Southeast Asia, and parts of China were all controlled by Japan.
The American naval victories at the Coral Sea and Midway stopped Japanese expansion.
The president of Szilard, refugees from fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, was sick and suffering from high blood pressure and heart failure after he produced the first controlled atomic chain reaction trip.
On April 12, 1945, during a short visit to his German-born refugee Albert Einstein, the greatest vacation home in Warm Springs, Georgia, Roosevelt orist of modern physics and a scholar at Princeton, suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died.
The weapon was the atomic bomb.
The Japanese were ousted from the Philippines early in 1945, after Allied forces retook the islands of the central Pacific.
The capture of these islands gave the U.S. more bases to strike Japanese targets.
The U.S. dropped the atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima as the Soviet army invaded Manchuria.
On August 10, the Japanese offered to surrender.
Italy was defeated by Truman's ratio.
The invasion of Japan itself seemed necessary.
After victory in Europe, Roosevelt traveled to Yalta on the Black Sea, where he met with both Stalin and Churchill.
The treatment of Germany, the status of Poland, and the creation of the United Nations were discussed by the leaders.
The Yalta agreements set the stage for the Cold War and mirrored a new balance of power.
Truman considered other options before giving the order to drop the atomic bomb.
The most obvious alternative was to sign a formal agreement on September 2, 1945, but sors rejected it.
If the demonstration between the capitalist nations of the West and the com failed, as the bomb had been the government of the Soviet Union, it was out of the question.
The coming would embolden Japan further.
The victorious detailed advance warning was designed to scare Japan into joining a coalition.
The surrender was also rejected as the war came to an end.
The Americans believed that the stirrings of independence in the European colonies were the result of Japan's tenacious early signs of the Cold War.
The deaths of more than 100,000 Japanese civilians in the U.S. firebombing of Tokyo and other cities in the spring of 1945 brought Japan no closer.
The Marine Corps delivered the eulogy for the fallen.
The photo was taken six months after the atomic bomb was dropped on the port city of Hiroshima.
The concrete reinforced buildings were not leveled.
The human toll of this weapon was unprecedented, with 100,000 likely killed by the explosion and many more dying slowly of radiation poisoning.
The pendence movement in India was the most affected by American losses.
More than 50 million soldiers were killed, 2.5 percent of the world's population were killed, and the war represented a step toward national population.
6 million people died in the Holocaust.
The toll of war was great in the United States.
More than 400,000 lives were lost, 300,000 were wounded, and 30 million people were wounded by American soldiers.
Millions were rendered homeless.
It was one of the most difficult things to do when you return home, and in the coming decades it will be one of the worst wars in human history.
World War II veterans made up one-third of the political and economic changes of the 20th century.
The Civil ies in Europe and Asia were bombed.
Service from a generation was involved in some of War, like Dresden, Warsaw, and Hamburg.
Americans paid a heavy price for it.
The most important industrial economies before the war were Germany and Japan, as well as the infrastructure of Europe and Asia.
Despite being one of the eign policy for the remainder of the century.
By the end of 1944, Allied victory was all but certain.
After the rise of fascists in Germany, Italy, and Japan, Japan surrendered in the outbreak of World War II.
The public opposed U.S. intervention after the atomic bombing of the Japanese cities.
Preparing the country for war was one of the things Roosevelt was doing to mobilize support for the military.
The diplomatic disputes between the Soviet Union and the nation after the atomic bomb attack on Pearl Harbor brought the conflict to a head.
Laws and practices were established during the war when the federal government was expanded.
It boosted geographical and universal income tax, a huge military establishment, social mobility as women, rural whites, and southern and multimillion-dollar budgets, to name but a few.
The country did the same.
Both the labor participation of the United States in international movement and the African American campaign for politics and alliances were assisted by government rules.
The exclusion of Jewish refugees and the intern the Soviet Union due to religious and racial animosity caused the postwar fate of 112,000 Japanese Americans.
Germany and Japan seemed to have won the war by 1942.
Explain the significance of each term.
You can demonstrate your understanding of the chapter's main ideas by answering these questions.
The World War II have on social change in the United events are listed under "America in the World" on the States.
Answer these questions to recognize the larger developments within and across the chapters.
The period between World War I of soldiers and those who contributed to the war effort are shown in the photographs.
How do these images help us understand a major series of conflicts and crises, both domesti events like World War II from different parts of the world?
The events discussed in this chapter can be found here.
" Women Come to the Front: Journalists, War II" is an engaging account of the home front during World War II.
"Ansel Adams's Photographs of fascinating exploration of both the domestic and Japanese-American internment at Manzanar" is a book.
The war is seen from the point of view of women.
You should ask yourself why this chapter begins and ends with these dates.
The Allies in the European and Pacific campaigns had key turning points.
Global leadership was dependent on further expansions in government power.
American troops went to war in Korea and Vietnam.
At home, African Americans, women, the poor, and other social groups called for greater equality in American life and sought new laws and government initiatives to make that a reality.
There are three key dimensions of this convulsive, turbulent era.
In response to the Great Depression, the United States entered into an alliance with England and the Soviet Union.
Legislators from Europe, East Asia, and the developing world.
The policy of containment, a combination of eco and racial discrimination denied millions of nonwhites nomic, diplomatic, and military actions to limit the full citizenship, affected nearly one-third of Americans in the 1960s.
The presi force in the civil rights movement and the Great dents embraced and expanded because of the lack of opportunity.
African American civil rights were a hallmark of the Cold War.
The majority of American interven movements sought equality based on gender, sexuality, and other identities.
If "New Deal liberalism" independent, decolonized nations and countries had focused on social welfare, this "rights liberalism" where nationalist movements pressed for indepen focused on protecting people from discrimination and dence.
Ensuring equal citizenship is in the name of preventing the spread.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was one of the laws that the United States interfered with.
In the 1960s, the Dominican Republic and conservative nesia fought major wars in Korea and saw the excesses of liberal activism.
The 1970s saw a new global role for the United States that inspired support but also spurred detractors.
The antiwar movement was included in the groundwork for a new conservative resurgence.
Chapters war in Vietnam discuss these developments.
The events of this period are arranged into themes by this timeline.
Consider the process of suburbanization.
Living standards and "Politics and Power" were raised because of rising wages, access to higher education, and suburban home ownership.
There were connections between goods.
Suburbanization transformed the nation's cities, and the Sunbelt led the nation in population growth.
The new prosperity had mixed results.
Suburbanization and mass consumption caused concern that the nation's rivers, streams, air, and open land were being damaged.
It proved to be short-lived.
Deindustrialization eroded much of the nation's once prosperous industrial base.