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17.7 Base Solutions
The NO 3 anion has a neutral pH and is the conjugate base of a strong acid.
The solution is acidic.
The counterion of a strong base is called the Na+ cation.
The basic base of a weak acid is the CHO 2 anion.
The solution is basic.
The NH + 4 ion is a conjugate acid of a weak base.
The basic base of a weak acid is F- ion.
Determine if the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.
Some acids, called polyprotic acids, have two or more ionizable protons.
There are two ionizable protons in sulfurous acid and three ionizable protons in phosphoric acid.
The second must separate from the anion.
There are some common polyprotic acids listed in Table 17.10
M17_TRO4371_05_SE_C17_730-785v3.0.1.indd 766 was formed by the second or third step.
The formation of H3O+ in the first step impedes the formation of additional H3O+ in the second step.
Most polyprotic acid solutions are treated as if the first step were the only one that contributes to the H3O+ concentration.
The problem should be treated as a weak acid pH problem.
The ratio should be less than 5%.
The approximation is valid.
The H3O + contribution from the second step is required for a concentration of 0.0100 M. The H3O + contributions must be calculated from both steps.
The first step is strong.
HSO 4 must also be 0.0100 M because of the ionization reaction.
The standard form is the standard expression.
The amount that must not be ignored is that the second step produces half as much H3O as the first step.
This is always the case with H2SO4 solutions.
We might want to know the concentrations of the anions formed by polyprotic acid.
The initial concentrations of HX and H3O are used to find the concentration of X2.
A 0.100 M H2C6H6O6 solution has an H3O+ concentration of 2.8 M from the first step.
The amount of H3O+ contributed by the second step is insignificant compared to the amount produced by the first step.
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