Each side tried to gain political control of the 50 million-acre territory because Kansans could decide about slavery.
"Come on, Gentlemen of the Slave States," William Seward yelled.
Groups against slavery recruited armed emigrants to move to Kan sas.
When the first federal governor arrived in 1854, he sent an urgent message to the president, saying that Southerners were going to force slavery into the Territory in order to win the election of a territorial legislature.
Thousands of heavily armed border ruffians from Mis souri traveled to Kansas and elected pro- slavery legislators, as militia leader David Atchison urged.
The territorial legislature declared that the territory would be open to slavery as soon as it convened.
The governor went to Washington, D.C. to plead with the federal troops.
Outraged free- state advocates in Kansas, now a majority, rejected the pro-slavery government and elected their own delegates to the consti tutional convention.
They applied for statehood after drafting a state con stitution.
The "governor" and "legislature" were in Topeka by 1856.
The Kansas Territory had two competing governments.
The mob destroyed the newspaper printing presses, burned homes, and ransacked shops.
John Brown, a white abo litionist, was enraged by the "Sack of Lawrence".
The son of fervent Ohio Calvinists who taught their children that life was a crusade against sin, the humorless Brown believed that Christians must "break the jaws of the wicked."
People who supported Brown thought he was a saint.
By the mid- 1850s, Brown had left his home in Springfield, Massachusetts, to become a holy warrior against slavery.
He believed that blacks in the United States deserved both liberty and full social equality.
His hatred of slavery was very strong.
Four of Brown's sons and a son- in- law went to Pottawatomie, Kansas, a pro- slavery settlement, two days after the attack on Lawrence.
Brown and his group killed five men with swords on the night of May 24.
Brown told one of his sons that he was a judge.
The Pottawatomie massacre started a war in the Kansas Territory.
On August 30, pro-slavery hooligans raided a free- state settlement.
Frederick Brown, John's son, was shot through the heart.
On May 22, 1856, an ugly incident in the U.S. Senate shocked the nation.
Charles Sumner, a Republican senator from Massachusetts, made a speech about the crime against Kansas in which he showered slave owners with insults and charged them with unleashing assassins in Kansas.
Sumner said that the state of South Carolina displayed a "shameful imbecility" due to its passion for slavery.
Sumner charged that the old man had chosen a mistress.
The strains on the Union were worsened by the violent incident in Congress.
Sumner's speech upset his cousin.
Sumner was confronted as he sat at his Senate desk.
Sumner was beaten about the head with a gold- knobbed cane until it splintered, after he was shouted that he had slandered the state of South Carolina.
Sumner almost died, but he wouldn't return to the Senate for almost four years.
The people of the South celebrated as a hero.
Dozens of people from the South sent new canes.
"Bloodied Sumner" was created for the anti- slavery cause.
Sumner's empty Senate seat is a reminder of the violence done to him.
The brutal beating caused more Northerners to join the Republican party.
The 1856 presidential election was marred by the violence of "Bleeding Kansas" and "Bloodied Sumner".
At their first national convention, the Republicans fastened on John C. Fremont, who had led the conquest of Mexican California.
The Republican platform was heavily influenced by the Whigs.
Federal funding for a transcontinental railroad was endorsed.
It was the first time a major party platform had taken a stand against slavery.
Franklin Pierce, the only elected president to be denied re- election by his party, was dumped by the Democrats.
James Buchanan, a former senator and secretary of state from Pennsylvania, was chosen as the nominee.
The Kansas- Nebraska Act was endorsed by the Democratic platform, and Congress should not interfere with slavery in states or territories.
In 1856, the Republicans had very few southern supporters and only a few in the border slave states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.
Buchanan added five free states to his southern majority for a total of 174, even though he swept the northernmost states with 114 electoral votes.
The Democrats would control the White House, Congress, and the Supreme Court.
A friend asked Franklin what he was going to do as he prepared to leave the White House.
Buchanan liked to drink.
America's first unmarried president looked like a leader.
He was handsome and well mannered.
He had built an impressive career on his commitment to states' rights and his promotion of territorial expansion.
He believed that the nation needed to make concessions to the South in order to save the Union.
He was accused of lacking the strength to stand up to the slave holders in Congress.
The choice of four slave- state men and only three free- state men for his cabinet was a troublesome sign.
Buchanan was one of the most experienced presidents.
He had a limited ability as a leader and a lot of bad luck.
The economy was growing too fast.
European demand for American corn and wheat was declining as too many railroads and factories were being built.
The failure of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company triggered a financial panic.
People are worried that the economy could be in trouble if a prestigious institution closes its doors.
Many busi nesses went bankrupt due to worried customers withdrawing their money from banks, which forced the banks to call in loans.
The "hard times" that had befallen the nation were highlighted in newspapers across the North.
Tens of thousands of people lost their jobs and banks started foreclosing.
Every bank in New York City closed.
Jobless men were roaming the city streets.
There were angry mobs in New York City.
Buchanan and his administration refused to intervene in the economic panic of 1858, which became known as the Panic of 1858.
He promised that the government wouldn't do anything to relieve the suffering caused by the financial panic.
The agricultural economy in the South suffered the least during the panic.
You are brothers of one blood and your slaves are white.
They feel bad for you because they are your equals in the natural endowment of intellect.
Our slaves don't vote.
We do not give them political power.
Being the majority, yours are the depositories of your political power.
Race-based slavery was suggested as a way to prevent working class whites from taking control of the social and political order.
Race-based slavery made it so that Cot ton is king.
The slaves in the south were happier, healthier, and better cared for than their counterparts in the north.
He insisted that people were not equal and should not be treated that way.
Slavery brought social stability to the southern states, so the northern states needed to "enslave" their white workers.
President Buchanan stated in his inaugural address that the issue of slavery was not to be decided in Congress or the White House but in the Supreme Court.
Scott was taken to St. Louis in 1830 and sold to an army surgeon who took him to Illinois, then to the Wisconsin Ter ritory and finally back to St. Louis in 1842.
While in the Wisconsin Territory, Scott married a woman and they had two daughters.
Scott filed a suit in Mis souri, claiming that his residence in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory made him free because of the abolition of slavery in those areas.
The Supreme Court of Missouri ruled against him after a jury decided in his favor.
Seven of the nine justices were Democrats.
Five of the seven people who voted against Scott were slaveholders.
The Chief Justice of Maryland ruled that Scott lacked legal standing because he was not a US citizen.
The Constitution excluded African Americans from citizenship when it was drafted, according to Taney.
The Supreme Court argued that the Compromise of 1820 had deprived the debate over slavery because of the refusal to give Scott and his family residency in Missouri.
The decision challenged the concept of pop ular sovereignty.
The territorial government could not be created by an act of Congress if Congress could not exclude slavery from a territory.
All of the West and the North were open to slavery.
The Court's decision made pro-slavery advocates happy.
President Buchanan approved.
The fight over slavery continued in the Kansas Territory, with both sides resorting to violence.
The pro-slavery territorial legislature scheduled a constitutional convention just before James Buchanan's inauguration.
The legislature overrode the governor's veto.
Buchanan replaced the governor with Robert Walker.
With Buchanan's approval, Governor Walker pledged to free- state Kan sans, who made up an overwhelming majority of the residents, that the new constitution would be submitted to a fair vote.
The pro- slavery constitution was approved because opponents of slavery boycotted the referendum on the constitution, which would have allowed Kansas to become a slave state.
Congress endorsed it.
Buchanan took a critical step.
Influenced by the south, he urged Congress to approve the Lecompton Constitution.
Buchanan's action would deny the majority of Kansas voters the right to decide the issue in a general election, which is why Stephen A. Douglas sided with anti-slavery Republicans.
In Kansas, a new acting governor scheduled another refer endum on the proposed pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution.
Voters overwhelmingly rejected it on January 4, 1858.
Kansans were ordered to vote in April 1858.
The Lecompton constitution was rejected on August 2, 1858.
The vote cleared the way for Kansas to become a free state.
The Democrats were divided over the issue of slavery in Kansas.
Stephen A. Douglas, one of the few remaining Democrats with support in both the North and the South, struggled to keep the party from fragmenting.
He had to get his home base in Illinois, where he faced reelection to the Senate.
Abraham Lincoln was selected by the Illinois Republicans to challenge Douglas.
Lincoln was the son of a poor farmer who rented out his son to neighbors so he could work.
The family moved to Indiana when Abraham was seven.
Lincoln's "angel mother" Nancy died two years later.
The Lincolns moved to Illinois in 1830.
Lincoln was a farmer in Springfield.
He married Mary Todd from a wealthy, slave-owning family in Kentucky.
Lincoln served four terms as a Whig after he was elected to the Illinois legislature.
He believed in Henry Clay's promotion of the American System.