Predestination and election are the most controversial of Calvin's doctrine.
Like justification by faith, this doctrine was proclaimed by Paul and Augustine.
Calvin made it the center of his system of religious belief.
Calvin said that God knows everything that happens in the universe.
If God left them to their own powers, they would disobey him.
The ability to persist in his service is given to those he "elects" by God.
For his own reasons, he allows to fall.
We call it the eternal decree of God, which he has determined in himself, what he would have become of every individual of mankind.
Eternal life is foreordained for some and eternal damnation for others, for they are not all created with a similar destiny.
He is predestinated either to life or to death when he is created for one or the other of these ends.
Calvin warned that the subject is dangerous and delicate since it touches on a secret of the Almighty.
It is wrong to question the plans of God.
There is only a worm's-eye view of Creation.
Whatever God has done is right.
Calvin admitted that the Lord's predestination was an awesome decree, but he held that all must accept it.
Many people wouldn't accept a doctrine like that.
Luther did not stress it in his teachings.
Most Protestant groups would turn away from the doctrine because it is very gloomy and denies free will.
Calvin's teachings were condemned by the Roman Catholics.
Catholics believed that God's grace is more generous than Calvin suggested.
They said that each individual can either cooperate or refuse to cooperate in achieving salvation.
A person chooses the path to hell if they refuse.
Calvin said that the Catholic argument was an insult to God.
It suggests that God's will is not all-powerful and that his grace alone is insufficient.
He said that the doctrine of predestination did not excuse anyone from obeying God's commandments, despite the charge that it would destroy incentive for following a good Christian life.
Calvin argued that no one knows who the "elect" and "reprobate" are.
Individuals should act as if they enjoy God's favor.
They should obey God even if they don't enjoy it, as long as they want their lives to be shining examples to others.
The duty of those who feel moved by the spirit to do God's will themselves and to see that others also honor God is surely a duty.
All should shape their lives according to the decree of predestination, regardless of the divine will.
Though a person's behavior is not his salvation, it must still be scrutinized.
Calvin wanted the behavior of all Christians to be held under tight control, so he developed Puritanism as a social discipline.
Any form of card playing was disapproved by Calvin because it would lead to gambling.
The theater was closed down because it was seen as a distraction from God's word.
Dancing was not allowed as a way to increase desire and drinking was banned as a way to intoxication.
He considered the display of personal ornaments or the exposure of flesh to be signals to sexual instincts.
The traditional idea of an ascetic life was not the same as auritanical life.
Christians must live disciplined lives in the world.
Calvin accepted business as a normal Christian vocation.
He took for granted the functions of capital, banking, and large-scale commerce.
He did not question the morality of their occupation despite urging entrepreneurs to be honest and reasonable.
He was the first theologian to praise the capitalist virtues.
He praised the creation of wealth through industry if it was not used for self-indulgence.
Calvin's faith was attractive to both solid businessmen and colonial pioneers because of the economic realities of the day.
Calvinism contributed to the shaping of American life in New England in the 17th century.
Calvin believed that a person's conscience was the most important defense against sin.
He used his pulpit to warn sinners.
He used to force in prohibiting unseemly acts and words when his sermons failed.
The public morals and discipline of the Consistory of Geneva were taken care of by a special body of pastors and lay elders.
The accused could be reprimanded or sentenced to bread and water if they were called before this court.
There were many offenses, including profanity, drunkenness, dozing in church, and other immoral acts.
The town council dealt with more serious offenses.
The man accused of placing an insult on Calvin's pulpit was tortured until he confessed and was beheaded for conspiring against Calvin.
Accused heretics were brought to the council.
Michael Servetus, a Spaniard, challenged the Christian doctrine of the Trinity.
Calvin arrested Servetus after warning him to stay away.
Calvin supported his conviction and execution.
The false prophet will be stoned without mercy.
When his honor is involved, we are going to crush all of nature's affections.
The father shouldn't spare his child, brother, husband, or friend because they are dear to him more than life.
The papal position of intolerance toward dissent was the same as that of the Protestant reformer.
Calvin excommunicated "wrongdoers" from his church and drove most of his critics from Geneva.
Most of the citizens of Geneva supported Calvin's policies by the end of his rule.
He imposed strict rules of conduct on all the residents of the city for defending Christian doctrine.
Like Pope Gregory VII, he opposed the union of spiritual and civil authority.
He believed that ministers of the Church should be judges of civil rulers.
To Calvin, the purpose of government was to regulate society according to the will of God, and the Church was the appointed interpreter of God's will.
The elected town council was the main governing organ of the republic.
Calvin's church was protected against critics, rebels, and heretics by the council.
Calvin held it over the politicians of the city because Pope Gregory VII had threatened excommunication over kings and princes.
A church-controlled state, theocracy was a model for some twenty years.
Calvin said that the Church is essential for the supervision of the state as well as for the salvation of souls.
This view was in line with the papal statement that individual salvation is only possible within the Church.
Calvin's doctrine of predestination and election may be at odds with the idea of dependence on Church membership.
Calvin said it was God's will that the elect be saved through the True Church.
The ways of Heaven might be reflected on earth through its inspired teaching and discipline.
Calvin held to certain Roman Catholic principles.
He differed from them in regards to the ministry and ritual of the Church.
Calvin accepted Luther's principle of the "priesthood of all believers" and his church gave no special powers to its ministers.
Their authority came from their assigned office.
Calvin was against preaching by self-proclaimed ministers.
A "legitimate min istry" is formed when suitable persons are appointed by the lay elders, subject to the approval of the congregation and the pastors of the community.
The minister was assisted by elders who were elected by the congregation.
There are only two sacraments that are clearly established in Luther's area.
Calvin only allowed the singing of psalms and the preaching of sermons after the administration of these two rites.
The Catholic cathedrals, with their stained glass, gilt, and statuary, were branded as pagan temples by him because he believed that music, art, and ornamentation had no place in the Church.
According to the Bible, Jesus and Paul conducted their ministries by preaching.
The core of the Calvinist service was preaching.
There were no processions, genuflections, embroidered garments, incense, or Latin chants.
The minister spoke in the ordinary language of his congregation and wore simple black.
Henry VIII and the Church of England Calvinist austerity were not accepted by Lutherans or English reformers.
The organization and ritual of the Church of England remained close to the Catholic tradition despite the influence of Protestant ideas.
The compromise between Roman Catholicism and extreme Protestantism was represented by the Anglican Church.
Roman Catholics would condemn it as divisive and heretical, while radical reformers would criticize it as illogical and subservient to the state.
Religious reform in England was carried out by the monarchs.
Changes were instigated by the wishes of the crown from the time of Henry VIII to the time of Elizabeth I.
The first Tudor monarch was Henry VII.
Henry VIII pursued his father's policies.
Henry was a popular king.
As a younger son in the royal family, he was trained in theology by his father, who was a priest.
The plan was dropped after Arthur's death left Henry heir to the throne.
His interest in religious matters continued, and he defended the Catholic view of the sacraments against Luther's public attack.
Henry resented Roman interference in his kingdom.
The pope confirmed the appointment of high-ranking clergy in England despite the monarchs controlling the Church in Spain and France.
The portion of Church revenues that went to Rome were appeals from Church courts.
Henry VIII broke with Rome because of a personal matter related to the welfare of the state.
He married Catherine of Aragon in order to preserve the alliance between England and Spain.
He was allowed to marry a relative because it was against canon law.
All but one of Catherine's six children were stillborn or died in infancy.
Mary was the only survivor.
The English had just emerged from a bloody civil war over the succession to the throne, and they feared that a female ruler might prove unable to maintain national strength and unity.
Henry and his advisers began to think about taking a new wife when it appeared that Catherine wouldn't have any more children.
Henry was fond of Anne Boleyn, a young lady in waiting to the queen.
He married Catherine and ordered his chief minister to have his marriage declared invalid.
Both partners were free to marry again if the Church found a marriage to be invalid.
The marriage to Catherine was contrary to canon law, so it would have been easy for papal lawyers to find a defect.
Henry was to be disappointed.
Charles V was Catherine's nephew.
The pope was told that there were no proper grounds for an annulment and that it would be cruel and disrespectful to his aunt and family.
For Henry's daughter, Princess Mary, was heir to the English throne, Charles did not wish Henry to remarry.
Mary would become queen if Henry didn't have a son.
Pope Clement VII received Henry's appeal when Charles was busy with a campaign to win control of Italy.
Clement was hoping that something would spare him from making a decision.
Henry had been waiting for nearly six years.
His marriage to Catherine was declared null and void by the newly appointed archbishop, Thomas Cranmer.
Clement freed Henry's subjects from their obligation to obey the crown.
Henry decided to free himself of the pope once and for all after he was enraged by the pope's delayed tactics and Clement's interference in state affairs.
The papacy had become unpopular in England and he was backed by both Parliament and the people.
The Act of Supremacy was passed by Parliament in 1534 after Henry first submitted the issue to the English clergy.
The act declared that the king was the "only supreme head on earth" of the Church of England and gave him the power to reform and heresies.
The break with Rome was made complete by a series of supplementary acts.
Payments to Rome were stopped, the crown had sole right to appoint bishops and abbots, and any denial of the king's supremacy was labeled as treason.
Sir Thomas More was beheaded after he refused to take the oath of supremacy.
Some minor rebellions had to be put down because other men of strict principle followed More to the cutting block.
Henry made his will known to the clergy, Parliament, and his subjects.
Mary Elizabeth I Henry did not mean to reform the doctrine of the Church of England when he took control.
He disliked the Protestant tendencies in the country and had Parliament pass the notorious Six Articles, which required all the king's subjects to accept Catholic beliefs such as transubstantiation, celibacy of the clergy, and the necessity of oral confession in the sacrament of penance.
Those who challenged his authority were sent to the block as traitors, while those who questioned Catholic doctrine were sent to the stake as heretics.
Henry's suppression of monasticism was an important departure from Catholic tradition.
The monks had an unfavorable reputation, the religious houses had great wealth and extensive lands, and Henry was hard pressed for money.
The Parliament voted to close the monasteries and give the property to the crown.
Most of it was taken for the king's own purposes.
He was able to create new ranks of landed noblemen who were interested in his break with Rome.
Many of the English preferred a dictatorship to liberty and disorder in those troubled times.
Despite his greed, cruelty, and marital misadventures, Henry's success, as well as his hearty manner, endeared him to most of his subjects.
After marrying Anne, he accused her of being unfaithful and had her beheaded.
Jane Seymour gave him a son after Anne Boleyn had given him a daughter.
The boy was frail.
Edward VI came to the throne when he was ten years old and his powers had to be exercised by a guardian regent.
Mary, the sister of Catherine of Aragon, received the crown after his death.
Significant changes in the Anglican Church were brought about by Protestant groups in England.
After Henry's death, Cranmer led the way to reform by persuading Parliament to repeal the Six Articles and the Act of Uniformity.
All subjects of the kingdom were required to attend services regularly, and other forms of public worship were banned.
The religious pendulum swung back after Mary succeeded Edward.
Mary, who had been raised a Catholic 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 She arranged for her subjects to be pardoned and restored to communion with Rome.
She forced the clergy to give up their wives and replaced them with Catholics.
English was used in the services of the Church.
Mary's most unpopular act was to marry Philip, the Habsburg heir to the Spanish throne and a bitter enemy of Protestantism.
In the face of Mary's ruthless policy against dissenters, most people adjusted their beliefs to avoid execution, but many went to the stake for their convictions.
She offended national feeling by marrying a despised foreigner and subjecting the country to the pope again, even though she was no more ruthless than her father.
The effect of Mary's reign was to make Catholicism more unpopular than before.
She was raised a Protestant, unlike her half- sister.
She was able to observe for herself the shifting loyalties in religion and politics.
She was a strong supporter of a Protestant Church and independence from Rome.
The security of the crown and the unity of her subjects were her first concerns.
She was a true child of Henry.
Mary's Catholic legislation was repealed and the Act of Supremacy was reenacted.
She didn't give any offense to her subjects who were proCatholic.
The foundation of the Anglican Church was established by the Elizabethan Compromise.
The Thirty-Nine Articles were designed to satisfy all but extremists and were enacted with Elizabeth's approval.
The exclusive authority of Scripture, salvation by faith alone, the number of sacraments, and the freedom of the clergy to marry were included in the Thirty-Nine Articles.
The Roman Catholic Church is similar to the Anglican Church.
The monarch was the "supreme governor" because she was responsible for ruling all classes in the country.
The idea was similar to that of Constantine, Theodosius, and Charlemagne.
The ministering of the Word and the sacraments was restricted to the priests.
The presbyterian form of Church government was developed by Protestant groups, but the authority was traced back to the apostles.
The theory of Petrine supremacy was rejected by the Anglicans.
Most of the English who were weary of religious quarreling were prepared to conform because of the stability brought by the Elizabethan Settlement.
Only a few clergy who had called themselves Catholic under Mary refused to accept the new Act of Uniformity.
Elizabeth didn't care about the private views or doubts of her subjects.
She wouldn't tolerate open c hapter 9: the reformation: division and reform in the c Hurc h dissent.
New religious stirrings would disrupt the established Church in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The age of Elizabeth brought England to the threshold of world power.
Philip, who had become King Philip II of Spain in 1556, sought the hand of Elizabeth after the death of his wife, Mary.
Philip decided to take her kingdom after Elizabeth held him off.
In 1588, Philip sent a mighty fleet, the Spanish Armada, against England, expecting that once his soldiers had landed on the island, the thousands of unhappy Catholics in the country would rally to his banner.
The English navy routed the Armada in the Channel and it was destroyed when it returned home.
The English became aware of their strength on the seas with Spain being the leading power of the Continent.
The nation's history was changed by Elizabeth's reign.
English sea power, commerce, and diplomacy were to exert a lot of influence over European and world affairs.
After Luther's challenge at Wittenberg, most of northern Europe broke away from the papacy.
Protestants dominated the cities of Switzerland, formed a militant minority in France, and penetrated the Catholic strongholds of Spain and Italy.
After hesitation and uncertainty, the Roman Catholic Church moved to check the revolt.
Too late to reverse the major losses, these efforts did recover some ground and keep Europe loyal to Rome.
Reform within the Catholic Church was one of the main courses of the response.
The ideas and ideals that inspired Luther and the other religious rebels inspired Catholic reforms.
The condition of the late medieval Church caused a lot of discontent and criticism.
There were important differences between the Catholic and Protestant reform movements.
The Protestant leaders wanted to rebuild the Church in accordance with different theories of authority.
The central doctrines, traditions, and organization of the Church were accepted by the Catholic reformers.
The Spanish reformation began in the late fifteenth century with the full support of the monarchy.
The Spanish reform was a model for Catholic action in Europe.
In the medieval tradition, this reform included a campaign to improve the morals and education of the clergy, military action against infidels, and a strong effort to wipe out heresies.
Churchmen in Italy had urged similar actions.
The princes of Italy were either indifferent or unwilling to make the necessary effort because the Renaissance popes had discouraged reformers.
New and reformed religious orders have arisen to improve the quality of Christian life.
The priestly order of Theatines was dedicated to education.
The reformed branch of the Franciscan friars was the order of Capuchins.
The Capuchins modeled themselves after Francis of Assisi, who preached love, piety, and simplicity.
One man and one order above all others were to play a decisive role in the Catholic Reformation and in stemming the Protestant tide.
The founder of this new order was a Spanish nobleman.
Loyola was wounded in a battle at the time Luther was standing before the Diet of Worms.
His leg was shattered by a cannonball, and he lay in pain for months, before he experienced a profound spiritual conversion.
Luther was burdened by a sense of unworthiness.
visions of Christ and Mary appeared to him after a long period of confession, prayer, and fast.
He dedicated his services to the Virgin as a knight, turning the military and chivalric traditions of his country to a spiritual purpose.
He found satisfaction in being obedient to God and the pope, despite the fact that he might have revolted.
Loyola realized that he would need a religious education to save souls.
He studied at the University of Paris for seven years, gathering about him a small group of devoted followers.
They formed a religious order in 1540 after working as an informal association.
The Jesuits were members of the Society of Jesus.
Loyola was elected its general, or commander, for life, and he placed himself and his society at the service of the pope.
The Jesuits accepted the authority of the pope and took monastic vows of chastity, poverty, and re quired.
The rules of conduct and spiritual exercises were laid out in Loyola's manual.
The Society of Jesus grew to fifteen members when Loyola died.
The Jesuits wanted to accomplish this goal through education and preaching.
They founded schools and colleges to teach the "true" doctrine and sent out missions to convert unbelievers.
The Jesuits tried to keep wavering Catholics on the path to correct belief.
As confessors and advisers to civil rulers, they tried to guide states in policies favorable to the Church.
Political activities of the Jesuits brought heavy criticism and attacks.
When Paul III became pope in 1534, he had to respond to the events in Germany and England.
He committed himself to reform more than Clement VII did.
He decided to keep the report secret because it was so shocking.
He summoned a council to deal with reform and heresy in the papal administration.
The deep troubles of Christendom were felt by many Catholics and Protestants.
The first general council, held at Nicaea in 325, faced a serious division over doctrine.
The Great Schism of the Church was a problem that the Council of Constance had to deal with in 1414.
Some believed that a meeting of all the high clergy could restore unity and purity to the Church.
They were worried that a council might be drawn into a compromise on doctrine.
The pope was hesitant because the past council had tried to limit the papal monarchy and establish the council as the supreme authority in the Church.
Although Paul III summoned a council to meet in Trent, he made sure that the papacy would control it.
Over a period of twenty years, the Council of Trent met.
The Jesuits at the council sought to keep a balance favorable to Roman policies, and they were aided in this by the fact that papal ambassadors presided over the sessions.
The Italians and Spaniards were loyal to Rome and could be relied on to support the papacy.
The pope decided on a course of action by the time the council opened.
Some of his advisers had urged him to try to bring about reconciliation with the Protestants, but this was unsuccessful.
The pope refused to compromise on doctrine and settled for a program of reform.
He was willing to accept the Catholic setbacks for the time being and concentrate on holding the line against further losses.
He thought it would be best to correct abuses and restate beliefs.