ChAPTER 4 -- Part 2: Unification and the Consolidation
It is likely that irrigation systems were built to catch and control water from the monsoon and the rivers and that fish caught in the rivers were a staple.
The major trading centers were the cities of Harappa.
Jade and jewels from China have been found at various sites.
The seals have realistic depictions of animals and human figures, as well as a complex writing system that no one has ever deciphered.
The fact that Harappan merchants used large numbers of seals to make sure that crates and urns were not opened during transport suggests that trade was very developed in the Indus valley civilization.
Harappan peoples seem to have been conservative and resistant to innovations introduced from the outside.
The tools and weapons they cast in bronze were used by the Mesopotamian people.
Their weapons were even more primitive and would have made them vulnerable to invasions.
The citadel of each urban capital may have been ruled by a powerful priestly class.
The Harappan populace and a number of gods and goddesses had control over fertility.
A naked male figure with a horned head is one of the recurring figures.
He is pictured in a lotus position on some of the seals.
The main mode of land transport used in south Asia's first civilization may have been a wheeled model clay cart.
In the Harappan era, similar models were found in almost all of the Indus.
Many figurines of women, valley settlements, and in some respects they resemble the ox-drawn, nearly nude except for a great deal of jewelry, have been found.
Large quantities of various commodities were traded in the region stretching from Mesopotamia to the Indus River valley, according to the presence of these seals in Sumer and other urban sites in the Persian Gulf region.
The worship of sacred animals and phalic-shaped objects at Harappan sites reflected the obsession with fertility.
Along with a few superbly carved figurines of male notables, statuettes of women, and seal carvings of humped buls and other animals, these religious objects represent the height of artistic expression for the apparently practical-minded peoples of Harappa.
Fine jewelry is still a craft that Harappans excel at.
Without an extensive administrative class ruling, the Harap pan culture would not have been possible.
The large two- and three-story houses are likely where members of this class and possibly wealthy mercantile families lived.
The dwellings set off from those of artisans, laborers, and slaves.
It was once accepted that Harappan and trading centers from the Middle east to China were found in a sample of the soft stone seals.
The Harappan script was written and read from right to left, like some modern languages.
Harappan writing seems to have been pictographic, but no one has found a pastureland for their cattle.
A consistent pattern would tell us what the symbols meant.
Archeological investigations show that Harappa declined in the 2nd millennium b.c.e.
The causes of that decline are not well understood by both historians and archeol ogists.
Harappa's demise is likely to be the result of a combination of factors.
There is evidence of severe flooding.
The adverse effects of long-term climatic changes may have been compounded by short-term natural disasters.
The process of desertification may have begun when the monsoon pattern shifted and the temperature changed.
sudden waves of migrants are suggested by rapid changes in pottery types.
It is possible that the Harappans were too weak to stop the incoming peoples from taking over their towns and cities.
Many of the centers of urban life have already been abandoned due to flooding.
The elites may have lost control over the artisans and laborers due to a decline in the quality of building and town planning.
Some of the migrants were bands of herders from Europe who entered the region over a long period of time.
The Harappan peoples used to depend on the canals and dikes for their agricultural life.
The economic basis of the civilization would be undermined by cattle breeding.
There was a lot of violent conflict in this transition.
Groups of skeletons with skulls smashed or in postures of flight from floods or foreign invaders have been found on the stairways.
Administrative decline and environmental changes may have combined to undermine the first civilization of south Asia.
A linguistic one is by the last to enter South Asia.
These people were centuries b.c.e., the Aryans had originally herders who spoke one variant of a group of related Indo-European languages and had settled down in agrarian societies and kingdoms, which provided formerly lived in the area between the Caspian and Black Seas.
They migrated in large numbers from their new civilization in south Asia in the 3rd and 2nd century B.C.E.
due to the rise of a splendid matic shifts and conflicts over grazing lands.
The emergence of two of Europe and Asia Minor were the first migrations.
The second wave was headed toward Iran.
The extent of the area affected by their expansion is illustrated by the great variety and prominence of modern languages.
The ancient invaders of north India have left society.
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