Women played important roles in society during the Heian period.
As attendants to the ruler's empress and other consorts, women edu cated in the arts and letters could advance at court.
Women could inherit property from their parents, and they would compete with their brothers for shares of the family property.
One of the best ways to gain power in politics was to marry a daughter to an emperor or shogun, and women were often involved in power struggles.
Buddhism was very strong during the Heian period.
Two monks were part of a mission sent to China.
The Buddhist teachings associated with Mount Tendai were brought back to life by one of the monks, Saicho.
All living beings can be brought to salvation according to Tendai's basic message.
Tendai practices include strict monastic discipline.
A powerful army of monk-soldiers protected the interests of the monastery and its many branch temples in the twelfth century.
A sect of the monastery felt that its interests were at risk, so it sent the monk-soldiers into the Buddhism that believes the capital to parade its sacred symbols in an attempt to intimidate the civil authorities.
There is an idea that the teachings of the sutras contain the secrets of enlightenment.
An expert can gain access to the mysteries through initiation into thecosmic diagrams, mudras,gestures, and mantras.
The Heian established a monastery at Mount Koya, south of Osaka, to reflect the values and beliefs of Japanese culture.
Buddhist art was stimulated byoteric Buddhism.
The domination of the Fujiwaras and other Heian families was finally ended by the rise of a warrior elite.
There was a civil war between the Taira and Minamoto warrior clans.
The clans relied on skil ed warriors who were called samurai.
After Yoritomo's death for come, the lord granted samurai's loyalty and service, and this wooden sculpture, 27.8 inches tall (70.6 cm), was made.
In a shrine dedicated to his memory, a Taira named Kiyomori dominated use from 1159 to 1181.
Yoritomo's dignity and power are conveyed by his relatives becoming governors of more than thirty shapes.
The Kamakura Sho headquarters was the gunate.
This period is referred to as Ja shogunate.
The similarities between military rule in Japan and feudalism in Europe during the same period have fascinated scholars.
The fusion of Germanic and Roman social institu tions gave rise to feudalism in Europe.
Military rule in Japan evolved from a combination of the native warrior tradition and Confucian ethical principles of duty to superiors.
Private land holding allowed the emergence of the samurai.
The land allocation system was copied from Tang China and began to break down in the eighth century.
By the ninth century local lords began giving their land to tax-exempt entities such as monasteries, the imperial family, and certain high-ranking officials in order to escape imperial taxes and control.
The local lord paid his protector a small rent after he received his land back as a tenant.
The local lord escaped imperial taxes and control because he received a steady income from the land.
Most of the land was taken off the tax rolls by the end of the 13th century.
Each plot of land could have several people with rights to shares of its produce, from a local lord to an estate manager working for him, from a regional strongman to a noble or temple in the capital.
In contrast to peasants in medieval Europe, those working the land in Japan never became serfs.
English and French lords lived on their manors, whereas Japanese lords rarely lived on the lands they had rights in.
European knights were similar to the samurai in several ways.
Both had expensive weapons and fought on horseback.
The Kamakura Shogunate is named after Kamakura, a city near modern Tokyo that was the seat of the Minamoto clan.
The founder, Yoritomo, appointed his retainers to newly created offices.
Military land stewards were put in charge of seeing to the estates' proper operation to cope with the emergence of hard-to-tax estates.
Military governors were appointed to enforce the law in the provinces to bring order to the lawless countryside.
After Yoritomo died, Masako protected the interests of the Hojos.
She helped her brother take over her father's power.
When the Hojo family reduced the shogun to a figure head in 1219, the process of reducing power holders to figureheads went one step further.
The Hojo family ruled from 1333 to 1334.
The shogun ate two huge seaborne invasions by the Mongols in 1274 and 1281.
The Kamakura government didn't have enough resources for its defense.
Temples were squeezed, farmers were taken away from their fields to build walls, and warriors were promised generous rewards in return for their service.
The political system broke down in the 14th century due to the growing discontent among the samurai and the fighting among the shogunate families.