ChAPTER 15 -- Part 1: A New Civilization Emerges in
He made a good living by participating in seagoing trade with other parts of Britain and with the European continent.
St. Godric was troubled by the weather for the rest of his life, thinking of the dangers of sailors.
He is best remembered for his love for animals.
He is said to have allowed snakes to warm up at his fire.
He wasn't completely at peace with himself.
His biographer wants to emphasize Godric's consistent Christianity.
He portrays him as content with a simple life despite his wealth, and quickly attracted to the saints and a life of God.
He believes Godric's sea voyages helped the future saint realize the importance of divine aid and that religion provided a sense of security to venturesome merchants.
It did not seem like a material life was enough.
Godric began visiting saints' shrines more frequently.
He was starting to be disturbed by the high living and drinking of some of his merchant colleagues.
Some of them stole completely.
He went on a pilgrimage to rome because he was too materialistic.
He decided to give himself up for a religious life after that.
He spent the rest of his life wandering as a religious hermit after selling all of his goods and giving the proceeds to the poor.
Many Europeans felt tension between commercial change and religious commitment when they lived in growing cities.
Godric discovered that some would choose commerce.
Others chose to follow a religion.
Others worked for more than one combination.
Many merchants gave to the churches of the cities and not a few made deathbed renunciations of their commercial pasts.
Christianity provided the most obvious unifying factor in the new geography of western European civilization, as the postclassical period was a great age of faith.
Most western Europeans converted from polytheistic faiths after Christian mission ary efforts.
Europe's growing participation in trade was one of the key developments.
It was not always easy to put the pieces together.
The recovery from Rome's collapse was gradual.
The forms of civilization spread northward after the fall of the roman Empire.
The characteristics of western European civilization emerged from these processes.
Medieval western Europe was involved in the network of expanding contacts in Asia, Europe, and parts of Africa.
New tools from Asia, including a new kind of plow, helped spur medieval agriculture from the 10th century onward.
New crops from Africa increased food production.
The first European paper factory was one of the technological gains that came from the revival of trade in the Mediterra nean.
Medieval culture was shaped by connections with the wider world.
By the 11th and 12th centuries, contact with the Byzantines and the Arabs taught Western scholars new lessons in mathematics, science, and philosophy.
The medieval West took more from the emerging world network than it contributed, but it was also challenged by its international position to seek new world roles.
Rome agriculture and trade revived, and continued to serve as the center of the growing Catholic church in turn being the most powerful institution in the West.
Italy was divided politically.
Spain, a key region of the Roman Empire that was advanced under the influence of feudalism and the Catholic West, was taken over by the Muslims through much of the Middle Ages.
The center of the postclassical West was in France, the Low Countries, and southern and western Germany, with England increasingly drawn in--areas where civilization, as a form of human organization, was new.
It is difficult to develop durable government or economic forms because of frequent invasions.
Life from Ireland to Sicily was disrupted by seagoing raiders from Sweden.
Intellectual activity declined because of the weak states who disrupted coastal areas.
The monasteries of the Catholic church and the hierarchy of western Europe were where the few who could read and write were kept learning.
They could not do much more than copy older manuscripts.
Between Rome's fall and the 10th century, the manorial System: Obligations and Allegiances economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant was largely local.
Social structures in open cultural societies are assessed under obligations that exchanged labor or standing manorialism.
Peasant agricultural laborers are called manors.
The serfs were protected by the manorial system of justice and were obligated to turn over some of their goods to the landlords.
The manorial system began in the Roman Empire.
The decline of trade and lack of larger political structures strengthened it.