The liquid in the air is dispersed by some atomizers.
This breaks one liquid into smaller droplets, which are then dispersed throughout the other liquid.
Waves can cause oil and water to form an emulsion, making it difficult to clean up oil spills in the ocean.
The dispersed phase tends to coalesce, form large drops, and separate.
A little soap can be used to stable the kerosene in the water.
Milk has butterfat in it's water as an emulsifying agent.
Egg yolk components are used as emulsifying agents in Mayonnaise.
The particles are formed by aggregation of molecule or ion.
Drop or precipitates form if the particles grow beyond the colloidal size range.
Clouds are formed when water molecule aggregate and form colloid-sized particles.
If these water particles coalesce to form adequately large water drops of liquid water or crystals of solid water, they settle from the sky as rain, sleet, or snow.
Chemical reactions are involved in many condensation methods.
The longterm stability of many colloids is shown by the fact that some gold sols are still intact.
The soap was made by boiling fats and using hot water and K2CO3 from wood ashes.
There are long-chain carboxylic acids in animal fats.
When animal fats are treated with a base like potassium carbonate or sodium hydroxide, glycerol and salts of fatty acids such as palmitic, oleic, and stearic acid are formed.
There are two ends to the soap: a blue one and a red one.
A carboxylate group is the ionic end.
The length of the end can be different from soap to soap.
detergents form water-soluble products because they form insoluble calcium and magnesium compounds in hard water.
There are two ends to detergents, one blue and one red.
The end of the ionic molecule can be either sulfate or sulfonate.
The length of the end can be different from detergent to detergent.
The structures of the molecule involved in the cleaning action of soaps and detergents can be explained.
The end of a soap or detergent molecule can be found in nonpolar substances such as oil, grease, or dirt.
The soap or detergent molecule becomes oriented at the interface between the dirt particles and the water so they act as a bridge between polar and non polar matter.
Dirt particles are washed away when they become suspended as colloidal particles.
A diagrammatic cross section of an emulsified drop of oil in water shows how soap or detergent acts as an emulsifier.
The largest marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum was caused by the explosion of the oil drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico.
The oil flowed from the well 5000 feet below the water's surface for 87 days.
The well was sealed on September 19th.
The spilled oil rose to the surface of the water because it was less dense than water.
In an attempt to protect beaches and wetlands along the Gulf coast, floating booms, skimmer ships, and controlled burns were used to remove oil from the water's surface.
Attempts were made to diminish the environmental impact of the oil by rendering it "soluble" and thus allowing it to be reduced to less harmful levels by the vast volume of ocean water.
The approach used 1.84 million gallons of the oil dispersant Corexit 9527, most of which was injected underwater at the site of the leak, with small amounts being sprayed on top of the spill.
The polar and non polar ends of the molecule are useful for making it more available to marinebacteria for digestion.
While this approach avoids many of the immediate dangers that bulk oil poses to marine and coastal ecosystems, it introduces the possibility of long-term effects resulting from the introduction of the complex and potential toxic components of petroleum into the ocean's food chain.
The particles are often charged.
A particle of iron(III) hydroxide does not have enough hydroxide ion to compensate for the positive charges on the iron(III) ion.
Each individual particle bears a positive charge, and the dispersion consists of charged particles and some free hydroxide ion, which keep the dispersion neutral.
Most metal hydroxide colloids have positive charges.
All particles in a system have the same sign.
Particles containing like charges repel each other, so this helps keep them dispersed.
The charge on particles can be used to remove them from a mixture.
Iron(III) hydroxide particles would move to the negative electrode if we placed a colloidal dispersion in a container with charged electrodes.
There, the particles lose their charge.
The carbon and dust particles in smoke are dispersed.
The process to remove these particles was developed by a chemist.
He completed a Bachelor's degree in three years at UC Berkeley.
He used his salary as a chemistry teacher at Oakland High School to fund his studies in chemistry in Berlin, with a winner of the 1995 Nobel prize and another.
He returned to the US after earning his PhD to teach at UC Berkeley.
He helped develop the electrostatic precipitator, a device that removes particles from the air.
The money from his invention was used to fund scientific research.
The charged particles are deposited into the air as dust.
This method is used to clean up the smoke from industrial processes.
Valuable products from the smoke and flue dust of smelters, furnaces, and kilns can be recovered through the process.
Ion air filters are designed to improve indoor air quality.
Particles that are positively and negatively charged are attracted to highly charged electrodes and deposited as dust.
It appears that the fibers of the dispersing medium form a complex three-dimensional network, the interstices being filled with the liquid medium or a dilute solution of the dispersing medium.
The gel is said to be hydrated orsolvated because of the taking up of water or some other solvent.
Gelatin desserts are made from colloids in which a solution of sweeteners and flavors is dispersed.
When hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of sodium silicate, a dispersion of hydrated Silicon dioxide is formed.
The gel is made by mixing alcohol and a solution of calcium acetate.
A solution is formed when two or more substances combine in a way that makes a mixture that is homogeneity at the molecule level.
The physical state of the solution is determined by the concentration of the solvent.
The other components are usually present at concentrations less than the solvent.
Depending on the relative magnitudes of solute and solvent intermolecular attractive forces, solutions may form endothermically or exothermically.
There is no change in energy.
electrolytes are substances that are dissolved in water.
It is possible to be ion compounds that produce cations and anions when dissolved, or it is possible to be covalent compounds that react with water to produce ions.
Ion-dipole attractions between the ion and the polar water molecule allow for the dissolution of an ionic compound.
Soluble ionic substances and strong acids ionize completely and are strong electrolytes, while weak acids and bases ionize to a small extent and are weak electrolytes.
Nonelectrolytes do not produce ion when dissolved in water.
The relative strengths of intermolecular attractive forces that may exist between the substances' atoms, ion, or molecule are some of the factors that determine the extent to which one substance will dissolving in another.
Substance's maximum concentration in a solution at equilibrium is quantified as the tendency to dissolve.
A saturated solution has solute in it.
A nonequilibrium condition that will result in solute precipitation when the solution is appropriately perturbed is called a supersaturated solution.
Immiscible liquids are very low in mutual solubility.
Solid solutes increase with temperature while gaseous solutes decrease.
Henry's law states that the concentration of a gaseous solute in a solution is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas to which the solution is exposed.
The colligative properties of a solution are dependent on the concentration of solute particles.
Changes in the vapor pressure, boiling point, and freezing point of the solvent in the solution are included.
The magnitudes of these properties are dependent on the total concentration of solute particles in solution.
The osmotic pressure is determined by the total concentration of solute particles.
This is the amount of pressure that must be applied to the solution in order to prevent the spread of the pure solvent through the semipermeable membrane into the solution.
colligative effects may be less than predicted if ion compounds don't completely dissociate in solution due to activity effects.
A collid is a mixture in which one or more substances are dispersed as droplets in a liquid or gaseous medium.
The particles of a colloid do not settle due to gravity and are often charged.
Many technological applications use collioids.
When KNO3 is dissolved in water, the solution is very cold.
When solutions form, heat is released and absorbed.
There is a difference between these two types of processes.
H2 gas may be exposed to Pd metal.
Henry's law states that the concentration of hydrogen in the palladium depends on the pressure of H2 gas applied.
In 215 g of palladium metal, 0.94 g of hydrogen gas is dissolved.
Methanol, hydrogen chloride, and NaOH can be dissolved in water.
The form in which each of these compounds is present is shown in the sketches.
The solution of Na2S2O3 is presented to you.
As much as 0.70 g of O2 can be dissolved in 1 L of water.
A qualitative graph of the pressure versus time for water vapor above a sample of pure water and a sugar solution is needed.
The normal spinal fluid has a 75% concentration of C6H12O6 in it.
The OpenStax book can be found for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9.
The solution has a volume of 275 mL.
A solution contains urea, CO(NH2)2, a nonvolatile compound, dissolved in water.
The boiling point of 44.69 g of water was raised in an experiment many years ago.
The cell walls are cleaved by lysozyme.
An osmotic pressure of 1.32 x 10-3 atm is displayed on a 0.100-L sample of a solution of lysozyme.
The osmotic pressure of the solution is 23 torr.
The osmotic pressure of blood is 7.6 atm.
The sugar is composed of 40.0% C, 6.7% H, and 53.3% O.
The boiling point of the solution is 78.59 degC.
The pressure of CH3OH is 94 torr.
The temperature at which C2H5OH has its Vapor Pressure is 44 torr.
Even though meat is not frozen, it can be classified as fresh.
An organic compound has a composition of C and H. The melting point of pure camphor is 178.4 degrees.
The dispersed phase and dispersion medium are found in each of the colloidal systems.
There are two methods for preparing colloidal systems.