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5.3 Radiation Measurement -- Part 1
The nuclear equation should show mass numbers and atomic numbers.
The Geiger counter is one of the most common instruments for detecting radiation.
There is a metal tube filled with a gas.
When radiation enters a window on the end of the tube, it forms charged particles in the gas which produce an electrical current.
Each burst of current is amplified to give a reading on a meter.
There are many ways in which radiation is measured.
Marie Curie was a Polish scientist who discovered radium and polonium.
Workers at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant are exposed to a lot of radiation.
The gray is the same as 100 rad.
If alpha particles enter the body by other routes, they can cause a lot of damage to the tissue.
High-energy radiation, such as alpha particles, high-energy protons, and neutrons, can cause more damage.
The rays travel a long way through the body.
The biological damage in rems is the same as the absorbed radiation.
The factor is between 10 and 20 for alpha particles.
The measurement for an equivalent dose will be in units of millirems.
1000 mrem is equal to one rem.
Equal to ation is one sievert.
Campers can use irradiated food from contaminated ground beef, fruit juices, lettuce, and alfalfa sprouts.
The FDA has given the go-ahead for irradiated meat, fruits, and vegetables to be sold at the market.
The irradiation technology is similar to the one used to sterilize medical supplies.
The cobalt is placed in the tubes in the racks.
When food moves through the rack, the rays from the sun kill the germs.
It is important for consumers to know that when food is irradiated, it never comes in contact with the radioactive source.
The radiation stops the growth ofbacteria.
For the same purpose, we cook or heat food.
The cells of the food are no longer dividing or growing, so radiation and heat have no effect on that.
A small amount of vitamins B1 and C may be lost, but irradiated food is not harmed.
The FDA has approved irradiation of pork, poultry, and beef to decrease the risk of infections.
The shelf life was extended after two weeks.
strawberries on the right are irradiated vegetable and meat products.
In more than 40 countries, mold is available in retail markets.
There are irradiated foods in some stores.
People who work in radiology laboratories wear dosimeters to determine if they have been exposed to radiation.
A dosimeter can be used for a variety of purposes.
Real-time radiation levels are measured by monitors in the work area.
The radioisotope phosphorus-32 is incorporated into bone in one treatment for bone pain.
Up to 450 rad can be produced by a dose of 7 mCi.
A dosimeter is used to measure radiation exposure.
The activity of the P-32 in terms of nuclei that break down in 1s is indicated by the millicuries.
The rad is the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone.
States are exposed to 3.6 mSv of radiation annually.
There are some common sources of radiation.
The bigger the dose of radiation, the greater the effect on the body.
Exposure to less than 0.25 Sv can't be detected.
A decrease in the number of white blood cells can be caused by whole-body exposure.
A person may suffer the symptoms of radiation sickness, such as nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and a reduction in white-cell count.
Half of the people are getting that dose.
Two samples of a radioisotope were spilled.
A person gets 50 rad of radiation.
A person could absorb 50 mrad of alpha radiation.
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