You must be brought before the court to be informed of the charges against you.
Without a trial, you cannot be punished.
The laws are unconstitutional because they were applied before the laws were passed.
Most of the Bill of Rights are applied to the state and local governments.
False advertising is not protected by the First Amendment.
Congress will not make a law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise of religion.
Congress can't establish any religion as the national religion, favor one religion over another, or tax American citizens to support any one religion because the church and government are separate in the United States.
The policy of reimbursing parents for the costs of busing their children to school was upheld by the court.
The court ruled that prayer in public schools is unconstitutional.
The reading of a Bible passage at the beginning of the day was struck down by the court.
To pass the test, a law must have a primarily secular purpose, its principal effect must not aid or impede religion, and it must not create excessiveentanglement between government and religion.
If secular displays are also included, the Court upheld the right of governmental entities to celebrate the Christmas holiday with Christmas displays.
The law setting aside time for "voluntary prayer" in public schools was overturned by the Court.
Louisiana could not force public schools to teach evolution and creationism.
The Equal Access Act required public secondary schools to give religious groups the same access to facilities as other extracurricular groups.
Clergy-led prayer was not allowed at high school graduation ceremonies.
The Texas law that allowed high school students to read a prayer at athletic events was overturned by the Court.
The right to practice any religion is guaranteed by the Free Exercise Clause.
The Supreme Court made distinctions between belief and practice in its interpretations of the Free Exercise Clause.
The practice of religious beliefs may be restricted if they conflict with criminal laws.
Even though Reynolds claimed that the law limited his religious freedom, the Court upheld the federal law that banned polygamy.
The court ruled that Amish parents could not be forced to send their children to public school past the eighth grade because it would violate their religious beliefs.
Oregon could deny unemployment benefits to workers who were fired for using drugs during a religious ceremony.
The laws banning animal sacrifice were found to be unconstitutional by the court.
The City of Boerne, Texas is in Texas.
The most common form of speech is verbal speech.
It is possible to use symbolic and verbal speech together, such as a rally and then picketing.
If it endangers public safety, using actions and symbols to convey an idea may be subject to government restrictions.
There are limitations on free speech when it comes to national security.
Some of the acts were aimed at the opponents of President John Adams.
The Alien and Sedition Acts were never challenged in court.
After the assassination of President McKinley in 1901 and the entrance of the United States into World War I, Congress again passed sedition laws forbidding verbal attacks on the government, and the states began following suit.
The laws were challenged in the courts.
He was convicted of violating a federal law against encouraging the disobedience of military orders after mailing fliers to draftees urging them to protest the draft peacefully.
In his opinion, such speech was not protected during the war because it would create a clear and present danger, establishing a standard for measuring what would and would not be protected speech.
The Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment was applied to the states by the Court.
The First Amendment protects the wearing of black armbands in protest of the Vietnam War.
The Court made the "clear and present" danger test less restrictive by ruling that using inflammatory speech would be punished only if there was imminent danger that it would cause an illegal act.
The flag burning is a protected form of symbolic speech.
The Communications Decency Act was unconstitutional because it was too broad and vague.
The Court has supported the preferred position doctrine since the 1940s, which says that the First Amendment is more important than other freedoms because it gives a basis for other liberties.
The press is a form of expression that is often protected because it is related to freedom of speech.
Newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and the internet are included in the press today.
The statements about public officials were protected by the court.
The court refused to stop the publication of the Pentagon Papers.
The court ruled in favor of the school district's censorship of student newspapers if they were related to legitimate concerns.
Citizens can make their views known to government officials through the use of freedom of assembly and petition.
The courts have allowed the government to set limits on the rights and safety of others.
The Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment was used by the Court to apply freedom of assembly to the states.
To protect public order, government may require groups wanting to parade or demonstrate to first obtain a permit.
Schools, airports, and jails that are not generally open to the public may be restricted from demonstrations.
All groups have the same restrictions on assembly.
The right to assemble does not allow groups to use private property for their own purposes.
If demonstrations become violent or dangerous to public safety, police may break up the demonstrations.
The Supreme Court has not defined the term due process, but it has accepted the concept of government acting in a fair manner according to established rules.
Due process has been used to protect property rights, even though the Due Process Clause has often been applied to those accused of crimes.
The government cannot take private property for public use without paying a fair price.
Several rights have been interpreted by the Supreme Court as being under the category of privacy.
The concept of enumerated rights was enhanced by the First, Third, Fourth, Ninth, and Fourteenth Amendments.
There is a constitutional right of privacy for a woman to decide whether or not to have a baby.
The Bill of Rights addresses the rights of those accused of crimes.
The protections are extended to the states by the Fourteenth Amendment.
Under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, the Court applied protections against unreasonable search and seizure to the states.
Evidence obtained without a search warrant is not allowed in state courts.
The exclusionary rule is the Court's attempt to deter illegal police conduct by barring from court evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment.
The court ruled that police can search suspects for safety reasons.
The Court established the inevitable discovery rule, which allows evidence discovered as a result of an illegal search to be introduced if it can be shown that the evidence would have been found anyway.
The good faith exception was established by the court.
The Court ruled that suspects in police custody have the right to remain silent and to have an attorney.
The Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees defendants in death penalty cases the right to an attorney.
Poor defendants in noncapital cases are not entitled to an attorney.
The exclusionary rule was extended by the Supreme Court.
The death penalty was ruled unconstitutional by the court.
The death penalty was imposed based on the circumstances of the case.
Civil rights are guaranteed by the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, which was added to the Constitution after the Civil War to prevent states from discriminating against former slaves.
The rational basis test has been devised by the courts to determine if the discrimination has a legitimate purpose.
The strict scrutiny test has been developed by the courts.
If the discrimination reflects prejudice, the courts automatically classify it as suspect and require the government to prove a compelling reason for the discrimination.
If a city had separate schools for different races, the city would have to prove how this serves a compelling public interest.
The rights of the former slaves were amended after the Civil War.
Slavery was abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment.
The Bill of Rights was used by the Supreme Court to apply it to the state and local governments after the Fourteenth Amendment defined citizenship to include the former slaves.
The Fifteenth Amendment made it clear that people could not be denied the right to vote based on their race.
States used discrimination to prevent African Americans from participating in political processes.
State laws kept former slaves in a state of political bondage.
Literacy tests, poll taxes, registration laws, and white primaries were included in the laws.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 made it illegal to discriminate against African Americans in public places such as hotels, theaters, and railroads, but they had to take their cases to federal court.
The Act was ruled unconstitutional.
Jim Crow laws were designed to keep the races separate.
The doctrine was separate but equal.
Franklin Roosevelt banned racial discrimination in the defense industry and government offices.
Harry Truman ordered the reorganization of the armed forces.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957 made it a crime to prevent a person from voting in federal elections.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was created because of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Poll taxes were not allowed in federal elections.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965, which was passed in 1965, allowed federal registrars to register voters.
The Civil Rights Act of 1991 made it easier for job applicants and employees to bring suit against employers.
The African American civil rights movement has led to the end of discrimination by other minorities.
Hispanics, American Indians, Asian Americans, women, and people with disabilities are all trying to get protections from discrimination.
Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Central and South Americans are some of the people who are referred to as Hispanic Americans.
Hispanics are the fastest growing minority in America.
The number of Hispanics elected to public office has increased since the 1970s, but their progress is hampered by language and educational barriers.
Civil rights action on behalf of Hispanics has focused on health care for illegal immigrants, affirmative action, admission of more Hispanic students to state colleges and universities, and plans that do not discriminate against Hispanic Americans.
There are more than two million Native Americans in the United States.
Poverty, unemployment, alcoholism, and drug abuse are all problems caused by discrimination.
Native American attempts to gain political power have been hampered by lack of organization.
Native Americans have brought attention to their concerns with the formation of militant organizations and protests.
The treaty rights of Native American tribes were upheld by the Supreme Court in 1985.
The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act allowed Native Americans to have gaming operations on their reservations, which resulted in an economic boom for many tribes.
The Native American Languages Act was passed by Congress in 1990.
Asian workers began competing for jobs as discrimination against them began.
The Chinese Exclusion Act limited the number of Asians allowed to enter the United States.
People of Japanese descent were forced into relocation camps after Pearl Harbor.
Congress appropriated funds to compensate former camp detainment.
Women have not been given the same rights as men.
The Nineteenth Amendment gave women the right to vote.
The Equal Pay Act made it illegal to base an employee's pay on their race, gender, religion, or national origin.
The African American civil rights movement was affected by this.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned discrimination on the basis of gender.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Act banned discrimination in hiring, firing, promotions, pay, and working conditions.