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21.2 Nuclear Equations
The binding energy per nucleon for 42He is 25% larger.
To describe a nuclear reaction, we use an equation that identifies the nuclides involved in the reaction, their mass numbers and atomic numbers, and the other particles involved in the reaction.
There are many entities involved in nuclear reactions.
The subscripts and superscripts are required for balancing nuclear equations, but are usually optional in other circumstances.
An alpha particle has a charge of +2 and a mass number of 4, so it is symbolized 42He.
The ion charge is not important in the balancing of nuclear equations.
The table summarizes the names, symbols, representations, and descriptions of the most common species encountered in nuclear reactions.
Positrons have the same charge as electrons, but they have a different charge.
The preceding section has 2.
In the chapter discussing light and electromagnetic radiation, it's shown that gamma rays are more energetic than X-rays and can behave as particles in the wave-particle duality sense.
A photon is produced by an electronic transition from a higher to a lower energy level.
Due to the larger energy differences between the nuclear energy shells, the radiation coming from a nucleus can be millions of times larger than the radiation coming from electronic transitions.
A balanced chemical reaction equation shows the fact that during a chemical reaction bonds break and form and atoms are rearranged, but the total numbers of atoms remain the same.
A balanced nuclear reaction equation shows that there is a rearrangement of particles rather than atoms.
Nuclear reactions are balanced in two ways.
The mass numbers of the reactants are the same as the mass numbers of the products.
The charges of the reactants are the same as the charges of the products.
We can identify a particle by balancing the reaction if the atomic number and mass number are known.
If we knew that a protons, 1 H, was one of the two products, he would be happy.
A nuclide and a protons are produced by the reaction of a particle with magnesium.
The new nuclide was produced.
The atomic number of the new nuclide is X and the mass number is A.
The charges have to balance so: 12 + 2 + Z + 1, and Z + 13 The product is called 28 13 Al.
The nuclide 125 53 I combines with an electron and creates a new nucleus.
The first naturally occurring unstable element that was isolated, polonium, was discovered by the Polish scientist Marie Curie and her husband Pierre in 1898.
17O was the first nuclide to be prepared by artificial means.
The University of Chicago conducted the first controlled nuclear chain reaction in 1942.
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