The political theory that one ruler should hold all power within the boundaries of a country, free from any constitutional restraint or limitation
Religious and territorial conflicts created fear and uncertainty
Due to warfare, governments built large armies and placed high taxes on the peasant population
Poor economic conditions (taxes) and food shortages (little ice age) resulted in peasant revolts
5 Core concepts of the Enlightenment
what was natural was also good and reasonable
English thinker who wrote Leviathan in 1651.
argued people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish
To escape it, people entered into a social contract (people gave up their freedom for an organized lifestyle)
He believed that only a powerful government, such as an absolute monarchy, could ensure an orderly society.
was an English thinker
thought people were basically reasonable and moral
believed people had natural rights
wrote the Two Treatises of Government
he argued that people formed governments to protect their natural rights
Rejected absolute monarchy.
Believed people were born with a blank slate
he published The Spirit of the Laws in 1748,
discussed governments throughout history.
He felt that the best way to protect liberty was to divide the various functions and powers of government into 3 branches: Legislative, Executive, and Judicial.
defended the principle of freedom of speech
used biting wit as a weapon to expose the abuses of his day
targeted officials and aristocrats, battled inequality, injustice, and superstition
detested the slave trade, and deplored religious prejudice
He was later imprisoned and forced into exile.
produced a 28-volume set of books called the Encyclopedia.
His purpose was "to change the general way of thinking".
praised freedom of expression
urged education for all.
believed people in their natural state were basically good
natural innocence was corrupted by the evils of society
Wrote his ideas in a book titled The Social Contract
wrote about how society placed too many limitations on people's behavior
believed some controls were necessary but should be minimal
Believed that the good of the community as a whole should be placed above individual interests.
Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women
called for equal education for boys and girls
she believed education could give women the tools they needed to participate with men in public life
He is known as the father of Modern Economics
wrote The Wealth Of Nations
the belief that an unregulated exchange of goods and services would help everybody
would produce more goods at lower prices, making them affordable for everybody
argued that the free market should be allowed to operate and regulate businesses
Free Enterprise System
favored a free enterprise system in which commerce and business compete for profit with little to no interference from the government
Was a supporter of Laissez Faire
a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering
believed laws exist to preserve social order not to avenge crimes and that an accused person should receive a speedy trial (no torture).
criticized common abuses of justice such as torture and the death penalty.
believed that the degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime (not their social status).
Abolish capital punishment