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54 Terms
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Cell Theory point 1
All organisms are composed of at least one cell
Cell theory point 2
The cell is the basic unit of structure+organization in organisms
Cell theory point 3
All cells come from preexisting cells
1st guy to view organisms/bacteria 1673
Robert Hooke
Coined the term “the cell”
Endosymbiotic Theory
Some organelles within cells were at one time free living cells themsevels
Plant cell>animal cell>bacteria
Cells in order of size!
Smallest unit that can carry out all process of life
Surface to Volume Ratio
The reason why cells are small, and allows them to easily exchange food and waste. As cell size ⬆️, volume ⬆️ faster than Surface Area
Prokaryotic Cells
The 1st ever cell! Had no nucleus, simplest type of all! Ex. E-Coli, Salmonella, Bacteria
Eukaryotic Cells!
The supreme type of cell! Has a nucleus, membrane bound organelles, super complex. Ex. plants, animals, fungi, protists
Drawing Magnification
=measured size of drawing/size of specimen
1 Millimeters
1000 micrometers
1 centimeter
10 millimeters
Organism Actual Size
1) measure size on paper in micrometers 2) divide by magnification
The “organs” of a cell. Prokaryotes have a few (ribosomes). Eukaryotes have many, usually surrounded by a membrane
Cell Membrane ( aka Plasma membrane )
A lipid bilayer that protects and supports cells, controls what enters/leaves cells,
Cell Wall
Found in plant and protist walls, main function is protection, allows dissolved water to pass through substances
The Nucleus
The brain of the cell, controls most of the activity per cell, 1 per cell. Contains DNA + other molecules for the cell
The coded instructions for making proteins
Small, dense region in the middle of the nucleus where ribosomes are formed
The cell’s juice! Moves materials throughout the cell
Makes proteins in the cell, may be free in cytoplasm or attached to ER
Golgi Apparatus (bodies)
Stacks of membranes used for storing, modifying, or packaging
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Series of folded membranes that form sacs or tubes that help moves things throughout the cell
Smooth ER
No ribosomes, makes lipids, detoxifies drugs
Rough ER
Ribosomes make it look rough, the ribosomes make the proteins
Made by Golgi Apparatus, full of digestive enzymes to digest unwanted particles, the clean up crew
Filled with enzymes to digest toxic substances (type of Lysosomes)
Membrane bound compartments that store food, water, or waste.
Found in Eukaryotic plant/some protist cells. Capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy during photosynthesis-reason why plants 🌱 are green
Energy producers-the “powerhouse” of the cell! Converts chemical energy into usable energy
Overlapping network of filaments and fibers that support the cell and help maintain its shape
Help to organize the cell during cell division. They migrate to either side of the cell and help pull it apart-only in animal cells
Extension of the cytoskeleton- allows movement, main source of transportation for cells (the little tail some cells have)
Extension of the cytoskeleton- allows things to move around the cell (only in so me animals cells + prokaryotes)
High to low concentration!
Molecules move from?
When the concentration of two solutions are equal
the solution with the higher consecration of solutes
The solution with the lower concentration of solution
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
What’s up embedded in the Semi-permeable membrane of the cell
Lipid molecules, cholesterol, carbohydrates, and protiens
Protein channels
Nonstatic doorways on the cell membrane that allow cells to enter/exit
Facilitated Diffusion
Diffusion that has the aid of a protein channel
Passive Transport
Movement of molecules that requires no ATP
To move stuff in bulk
Purpose of Endocytosis and Exocytosis?
Part of the surface membrane surrounding the bulk that’s ENtering-active
Part of the surface membrane that helps the bulk EXit-active
Type of Endocytosis that takes in big particles
Type of Endocytosis that takes in liquids
Receptor-mediated Endocytosis
Type of Endocytosis that takes in the low concentration particle that the cell needs
Sodium/Potassium Pump
A type of protein channel that allows sodium particles (3 at a time) to exit the cell and potassium particles (2 at a time) to enter the cell. Requires ATP to pump therefore active
the process in which there is movement of a substance from an area of high concentration of that substance to an area of lower concentration
Semi-permeable membrane (SPM)
A membrane that allows some particles to naturally flow through- a Holy Membrane 😇