AP Psych - Behavioral/Learning 2022

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68 Terms
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a relatively permanent change in behavior; the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information from expierence
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. the events may be two stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (operant conditioning)
any event or situation that evokes a response
cognitive learning
the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language
an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
the view that psychology should be an objective science, examining observable behaviors, and studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
neutral stimulus (NS)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
unconditioned response (UR)
in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stimulus
unconditioned stimulus (US)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally, naturally and automatically, triggers a response
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
higher-order conditioning
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus (also called second-order conditioning)
a diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
law of effect
(Thorndike) behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors that are followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber
in operant conditioning research, a chamber (skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer
Martin Seligman
studied learned helplessness in dogs; Founder of Positive Psychology
Albert Bandura
studied social learning, and did the BoBo Doll experiment
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
positive reinforcement
increasing behaviors by adding a reinforcer, which then strengthens the response
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing undesired/annoying stimulus, which strengthens the response.
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer (secondary reinforcer)
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer (also known as a secondary reinforcer)
reinforcement schedule
a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after a predictable and consistent number of responses/behavior
variable-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses/behavior
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant behavior
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
salivating in response to a tone paired with a food a(n) _____ behavior.
pressing a bar to obtain food is a(n) ______ behavior.
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment.
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishments
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.
Taste Aversion (Garcia Effect)
The phenomenon in which a taste is paired with sickness, and this causes the organism to reject—and dislike—that taste in the future.
overjustification effect
the result of bribing people to do what they already like doing; they may then see their actions as externally controlled rather than intrinsically appealing and loose interest
Rosalie Rayner
graduate student of Watson and co-researcher for the famous Little Albert demonstration of classically conditioned emotion
Robert Rescorla
researched classical conditioning; found subjects learn the predictability of an event through trials (cognitive element)
the use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possibly gain control over that function (learned)
Edward Tolman
researched rats' use of "cognitive maps"
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
trial and error learning
Learning that takes place when a child tries several solutions before finding one that works
successive approximations
in the operant-conditioning procedure of shaping, behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to the desired response.
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Developed the fundamental principles and techniques of operant conditioning and devised ways to apply them in the real world, elaborated Thorndike's Law of Effect
prosocial behavior (altruism)
actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
John B. Watson
behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
Little Albert Experiment
1920 - Watson - classical conditioning on a 9 month old baby - white rat was paired with a loud clanking noise resulting in crying and fear of rat
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
emotion-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
problem-focused coping
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
the ability to control impulses and delay short-term gratification for greater long-term rewards
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
Performed pioneering conditioning experiments on dogs. These experiments led to the development of the classical conditioning model of learning.
Operant Chamber (Skinner Box)
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research
Puzzle Box Experiment
E.L. Thorndike studied how long it took cats to pull lever to get food. Fast every time, but gradual through trial and error. Lower animals don't learn by insight, more gradual.
positive punishment
the administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring
negative punishment
taking away a pleasant stimulus to decrease or stop a behavior