Dev Psych Exam #3

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192 Terms
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Concrete Operational Stage
the period of cognitive development between 7 and 12 years of age, characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic
the ability to take multiple aspect of a situation into account
understand the notion that processes transforming a stimulus can be reversed
an understanding about the processes that underlie memory that emerges and improves during middle childhood
Control strategies
conscious, intentionally used tactics to improve cognitive processing
Memory strategies are:
keyword strategy, rehearsal, cognitive elaboration, organization
Reciprocal Teaching
a technique used to teach reading comprehension strategies, in which students are taught to skim the content of a passage, raise questions about its central point, summarize the passage, and finally predict what will happen next
Metalinguistic awareness
an understanding of ones own use of language
the ability to speak two languages
Emotional intelligence
the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression and regulation of emotions
Reading Stage 0
(birth to start of 1st grade) children learn the essential prerequisites for reading, such as identifying letters, writing their names, and reading a few familiar words
Reading Stage 1
(first and second grade) children can sound out words by blending letters together, can also complete the job of learning the names of letters and the sounds that go along with them
Reading Stage 2
(second and third grades) children learn to read aloud with fluency; usually don’t always understand the meanings of those words but rather focused on articulation
Reading Stage 3
(fourth to eighth grade)- reading becomes a way to learn
Reading Stage 4
children are able to read and process information that reflects multiple points of view
Code-based approaches
reading should be taught by presenting the basic skills that underlie reading, such as the sounds of letters and their combinations to make words
Whole-language approach
reading is viewed as a natural process, similar to the acquisition of oral language
Teacher Expectancy effect
The phenomenon whereby an educator’s expectations for a given child actually bring about the expected behavior
Multicultural Education
education in which the goal is to help students from minority cultures develop competence in the culture of the majority group while maintaining positive group identities that build on their original cultures
Cultural Assimilation Model
the view of American society as a "melting pot" in which all cultures are amalgamated into a unique, United American culture
Pluralistic Society Model
the concept that American society is made up of diverse, coequal cultures that should preserve their individual features
Bicultural Identity
the maintenance of one's original cultural identity while becoming integrated into the majority culture
Charter school
independently run public schools that families can voluntarily choose for their children; often are small and sometimes have a specific focus such as on the arts, sciences or a particular language
students are taught at home by their parents in their own homes
Private schools
schools that are paid for and usually smaller/more select schools that can offer more programming
the capacity to understand the world, think with rationality, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges
Mental age
the age of children take the test who, on average, achieved that score
Chronological (Physical) Age
a person's age according to the calendar
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
a score that expresses the ratio between a person's mental and chronological ages
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
a test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
a test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance (nonverbal) skills, as well as a total score
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II)
an intelligence test that measures children's ability to integrate different stimuli simultaneously and step-by-step thinking
Fluid Intelligence
intelligence that reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory
Crystallized Intelligence
the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experiences and that they can apply in problem-solving situations
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
the belief that intelligence consists of three aspects of information processing: the componential element, the experiential element, and the contextual element
Componential element
how efficiently people can process and analyze information
Experiential element
insightful component; how easily they can compare new material with information they already know in novel and creative ways
Contextual element
practical intelligence; ways of dealing with demands of the everyday environment
Intellectual Disability
a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills
Mild Intellectual Disability
intellectual disability with IQ scores in the range of 50 or 55 to 70
Moderate Intellectual Disability
intellectual disability with IQ scores from 35 or 40 to 50 or 55
Severe Intellectual disability
intellectual disability with IQ scores that range from 20 or 25 to 35 or 40
Profound Intellectual Disability
intellectual disability with IQ scores below 20 or 25
Gifted and Talented
showing evidence of high-performance capability in intellectual, creative, or artistic areas, in leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields
the provision of special programs that allow gifted students to move ahead at their own pace, even if this means skipping to higher grade levels
approach through which students are kept at grade level bur are enrolled in special programs and given individual activities to allow greater depth of study on a given topic
Ideal self
the perspectives of others that are incorporated into who a child wants to be
Development in cognitive skills, such as perspective-taking skills, and a more complex social life during middle childhood leads to:
• Changes in self-concept • Descriptions of self as still based on competencies and social comparison • Sense of self becomes more balanced, fewer all-or-none descriptions; include references to social groups/comparisons -There is the emergence of the ideal self
Increased differentiation in self-esteem (middle childhood)
Young children (preschool) are able to distinguish between acceptance and competence, but lump together all competencies and aspects of acceptance into one group In middle childhood, they start dividing competencies with self-esteem into 4 different areas: Academic competence, Social competence, Physical/athletic competence and Physical appearance, allowing them to see themselves as more complex people
Kitayama proposed that....
an individual construal is common within western culture, while a collective construal is characterized in eastern cultures
Key factors influencing self-esteem are:
child-rearing practices, attributions of successes and failures, and Sociocultural and environmental factors around expectations of self shape how children view themselves in the context of their environments
Child-rearing practices
what is valued by parents influences a child's values; acceptance of children, clearly defined limits/rules and respect of self in parenting all help with self-esteem. High expectations, focusing on traits, shape self-esteem
Attributions of successes and failures
when children are able to see themselves a successful, will have a higher view of themselves. When they attribute failures and success as luck, they have learned helplessness and lower self-esteem. ability, effort and external factors
Industry-Versus-Inferiority Stage
the period from ages 6 to 12 that is characterized by a focus on efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and the other complexities of the modern world -Success in this stage brings feelings of mastery and proficiency along with a growing sense of competence -Difficulties in this stage lead to feelings of failure and inadequacy, making children withdraw both from academic pursuits, showing less interest and motivation to excel, and from interactions with peers
Social Comparison
the desire to evaluate one's own behavior, abilities, expertise and opinions by comparing them to those of others
Social reality
understanding that is derived from how others act, think, feel, and view the world
Downward social comparison
when children compare themselves with those who are obviously less competent or successful to protect children's self-esteem
Self-Esteem in Middle Childhood
• Children in middle childhood start to increasingly compare themselves to others and assess how well they measure up to society's standards • Children develop their own senses of success, and self-esteem becomes increasingly differentiated in middle childhood -Generally, self-esteem increases during middle childhood with a brief decline around 12 years old -African-Americans and Hispanics show lower self-esteem in middle childhood, but it is higher than White Americans by the age of 11, due to finding identity in their culture
Social Identity Theory
members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views held by a majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power and status differences between the groups. If minority group members feel that prejudice and discrimination can be reduced, and they blame society, and not themselves, for the prejudice, self-esteem should not differ between majority and minority groups
According to William Damon, a child's view of friendship goes through _____ distinct phases:
Stage 1: Basing friendship on others' behaviors
in the first stage, which ranges from around 4 to 7 years of age, children see friends as others who like them and with whom they share toys and other activities; not usually based on personal qualities
Stage 2: Basing friendship on trust
from 8 to 10, children take others' personal qualities and traits as well as the rewards they provide into consideration, and the centerpiece of friendship is mutual trust
Stage 3: Basing friendship on psychological closeness
begins towards the end of middle childhood, from 11 to 15 years of age, when children begin to develop friendships based on intimacy and loyalty
Social Competence
the collection of social skills that permit individuals to perform successfully in social settings (popular children are high in this)
Social Problem Solving
the use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others
Dominance Hierarchy
ranking that represents the relative social power of those in a group -Boys are more focused on this, wanting to show social dominance over others in their friend groups.Girls rather focus on having one or two "best friends" and prefer to keep friendships at equal-level status
a period in which parents and children jointly control children's behavior`
Sibling rivalry
siblings competing or quarreling with one another
Self-Care Child
children who let themselves into their homes after school and wait alone until their caretakers return from work
Blended families
a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them
Race and Family in Social Development
• African-Americans have a strong sense of family, and are more willing to offer support to extended family members in their homes. There is a relatively high proportion of families headed by older adults, such as grandparents •Hispanic families have a strong importance on family, as well as community and religious organizations. Children are taught to values their ties to families, and in general have larger family sizes compared to white families -Asian-Americans have strong father figure roles, and have a more collectivist view on family
The __________________ shows significant changes from mid-childhood through the early 20s and is in charge of all of the behaviors we associate with intelligence, responsibility, and emotional maturity
frontal lobe within the cerebral cortex (specifically the prefrontal cortex)
Adolescence is one of the most _________ periods of development
The three stages of adolescence are:
-Early adolescence (11-14)- marked by beginning of puberty -Middle adolescence (14-16) -Late adolescence (16-18)- taking on adult roles
a stage of rapid physical growth and sexual maturity (typically starts between the ages of 8 and 14)
Pubertal changes consist of:
Body growth -Growth spurt -Proportion changes -Muscle-fat makeup -Cephalocaudal and proximodistal growth is reversed in adolescence Sexual maturation -Reproductive organs enlarge and functions mature -Menarche and spermarche occur -Secondary characteristics occur (pubic hair, breast enlargement, etc) Brain development -Myelination and synaptic pruning -Limbic system develops early in childhood (emotional responses) -Prefrontal cortex inhibits impulsive behavior and regulates emotions; still growing in adolescence
Circadian changes in puberty
• "eveningness", the tendency to become more active at night, may increase risk of substance abuse and risk taking • Sleep debt may be influences by computer blue spectrum light, TV watching, and texting • Dangers from sleep deprivation and irregular sleep schedules include insomnia, nightmares, mood disorders, sleepiness while driving, and interference with learning -Three of every four high school seniors are sleep deprived
Secular trends
earlier or greater growth as nutrition and medicine improved
Secular trends in puberty
-puberty is happening sooner now than in previous generations -There is a link between puberty and stress, which means that stress can affect when puberty happens
Consequences of pubertal timing by gender:
Overall, early maturing in girls causing low confidence and negative body image, while late maturing causes girls to be more popular and have a more positive body image. Boys have the opposite effect, with more popularity and confidence in early maturing.
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Adolescent Growth Spurt
a period of very rapid growth in height and weight during adolescence -On average, boys grow 4.1 inches a year and girls 3.5 inches -Girls begin growth spurts around age 10, while boys start at about 12
How/When Puberty begins
• Begins when pituitary gland in the brain signals other glands to begin producing sex hormones (androgens in males and estrogen in females) at adult levels, as well as to increase production of growth hormones -Girls puberty starts at around 11 or 12 years old, while for bots it begins are around 13 or 14 years, but there are variations in age when puberty starts
the onset of menstruation
a boy's first ejaculation, which usually occurs at about 13 years old
Primary Sex Characteristics
characteristics associated with the development of the organs and structures of the body that directly relate to reproduction
Secondary Sex Characteristics
the visible signs of sexual maturity that do not involve the sex organs directly
Anorexia Nervosa- a severe and potentially life-threatening eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior or skeletal appearance is out of the ordinary
a severe and potentially life-threatening eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior or skeletal appearance is out of the ordinary
an eating disorder that primarily afflicts adolescent girls and young women, characterized by binges on large quantities of food followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives
the response to events that threaten or challenge us • Usually results in a biological reaction as certain hormones cause a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and sweating, producing an "emergency reaction" in the sympathetic nervous system Long-term and continuous exposure to stressors may result in a reduction of the body's ability to deal with stress
Psychosomatic Disorders
medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional and physical difficulties
efforts to control, reduce, or tolerate the threats and challenges that lead to stress
Problem-focused coping
attempt to manage a stressful problem or situation by directly changing the situation to make it less stressful
Emotion-focused coping
involves the conscious regulation of emotion
social support
assistance and comfort supplied by others; coping is aided by the presence of social support
Defensive coping
the unconscious use of strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation
Addictive Drugs
drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them
people who have learned to depend on alcohol and are unable to control their drinking
Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)
a disease that is spread through sexual contact -1 in 4 adolescents contracts an STI before graduating from high school -It is important to practice safe sex to prevent from the long-term effects of STIs
Statistics of addictive drugs in adolescence
-Three-fourths of college students consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the last 30 days. More than 40 percent say they’ve had five or more drinks within the past two weeks, and some 16 percent drink 16 or more drinks per week. Nearly three-quarters of high-school seniors report having had consumed alcohol by the end of high school, and about two-fifths have done so by the eighth grade. More than half of twelfth graders and nearly one-fifth of eighth graders say that they have been drunk at least once in their lives. -Binge drinking is especially common for college students, with over half of males and over 40 percent of females claiming to have binge-drinked within the past two weeks
Formal Operational Stage
the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly, which is reached at around the age of 12/the start of adolescence
Hypotheticodeductive Reasoning
starts with a general theory about what produces a particular outcome and then deduce explanations for specific situations in which they see that particular outcome
Characteristics of Formal Operational Stage:
• Are able to use formal principles of logic on problems, making them able to consider problems in both abstract and concrete terms • Hypotheticodeductive Reasoning is used • Propositional Thought is used • It is not until adolescents are around 15 years old that they are fully settled into the formal operational stage • Abstract thinking causing for adolescents to question authorities, as well as to become impatient with imperfections in institutions due to an increased concept of idealism -Adolescents become more argumentative
Most studies show that only ______ to _____ percent of college students and adults achieve formal operational thinking completely, and some estimates run as low as 25 percent.This is due to mental laziness and shortness, as well as culture and the concept that we only use abstract thought with things we are extremely familiar with
40 to 60
Information-processing approaches in adolescence:
Adolescents' general intelligence remains stable, but there are dramatic improvements in specific mental abilities that underlie intelligence -Verbal, mathematical and spatial abilities increase, and memory capacity grows, making them more able to divide attention -metacognition grows in adolescence, making them able to master school material better and more introspective/self-conscious, which may produce higher levels of egocentrism
the knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes and their ability to monitor their cognition
Adolescent Egocentrism
a state of self-absorption in which the world is viewed from one's own point of view; This type of perspective makes adolescents highly critical of authority figures, unwilling to accept criticism, and quick to find fault with others' behavior
Imaginary Audience
fictious observers who pay as much attention to adolescents' behavior as they do themselves
Personal Fables
the view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else
Kohlberg's stages of moral development are:
preconventional morality, conventional morality, and postconventional morality
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Preconventional Morality
people follow rigid rules based on punishments or rewards
Conventional Morality- people approach moral problems in terms of their own position as good, responsible members of society
people approach moral problems in terms of their own position as good, responsible members of society
Postconventional Morality
invoke universal moral principles that are considered broader than the rules of the particular society in which they live
Gilligans View on Morality
boys view morality primarily in terms of broad principles such as justice or fairness, whereas girls see it in terms of responsibility toward individuals and willingness to sacrifice themselves to help specific individuals within the context of particular relationships. Compassion for individuals, then, is a more prominent factor in moral behavior for women than it is for men
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Stage 1- Orientation toward individual survival
initial concentration is on what is practical and best for self. There is a gradual transition from selfishness to responsibility, which includes thinking about what would be best for others
Stage 2- Goodness as self-sacrifice
intial view is that a woman must sacrifice her own wishes to what other people want. Gradual transition from "goodness" to "truth", which takes into account needs of both self and others
Stage 3-Morality of Nonviolence
a moral equivalence is established between self and others. Hurting anyone- including one's self- is seen as immoral. Most sophisticated form of reasoning, according to Gilligan
SES and race on school success
-Middle- and high-SES students, on average, earn higher grades, score higher on standardized tests of achievement, and complete more years of schooling than do students from lower-SES homes. This is because children in poverty lack many of the advantages enjoyed by other children, such as proper nutrition and health and attending inadequate schools -data on school achievement indicate that, on average, African American and Hispanic students tend to perform at lower levels, receive lower grades, and score lower on standardized tests of achievement than do Caucasian students. In contrast, Asian American students tend to receive higher grades than Caucasian students do. A lot of this difference is due to socioeconomic factors. Some cultures may also perceive school success as relatively unimportant
High-School Drop Outs
-Each year about half a million students drop out of high school, and high school dropouts earn 42% less than high school graduates do, with the rates of unemployment for dropouts being 50% 0Some reasons people drop out early are: pregnancy, problems with the english language, economic reasons/needing to support their families, etc -Males are more likely to drop out than females -The drop out rate for all ethnicities has been decreasing over the last two decades, but Hispanics and African American students are twice as likely to drop out. Asians show a lower drop-out rate -Students from lower income households are three times more likely than those from middle- and upper-income households to drop out, which causes a cycle of poverty
Primary Orientation Model
students who work a greater number of hours are more psychologically invested in their work than in high school, which makes their academic motivation lover
unusually early entry into adult roles before an adolescent is ready to assume them
High school graduates and college
-Around two-thirds of recent high school graduates are enrolled in colleges or universities. Significantly more female graduates than male graduates started college (71 versus 61 percent) after graduating from high school. In addition, there are racial differences: 82 percent of Asians enrolled in college, followed by 70 percent of Hispanics, 66 percent of Whites, and 58 percent of African Americans. Overall undergraduate enrollment rose 32 percent between 2001 and 2011, from 13.7 million to 18.1 million, and minority enrollment increased steadily " -Only 39% of students who enter college finish with a degree within four years -There is a lack of proper distribution within genders of college professors; most are male -There is also a gender gap in college majors and academics, and men/women are given different college expectations
Fantasy Period
the period of life when career choices are made- and discarded- without regard to skills, abilities, or available job opportunities (usually lasts until age 11)
Tentative Period-
the second stage of career development, which spans adolescence, in which people begin to think in pragmatic terms about the requirements of various jobs and how their own abilities might fit within those requirements
Realistic Period
the stage in late adolescence and early adulthood during which people explore career options through job experience or training, narrow their choices, and eventually make a commitment to a career
John holland suggests that there are six different personality types that ensure a certain type of career as being best for them, which are:
realistic, intellectual, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic
are oriented toward the theoretical and the abstract. Although not particularly good with people, they are well suited to careers in math and science.
are down-to-earth, practical problem-solvers who are physically strong, but their social skills are mediocre. They make good farmers, laborers, and truck drivers.
The traits associated with this personality type are related to verbal skills and interpersonal relations. Social types are good at working with people and consequently make good salespersons, teachers, and counselors.
individuals prefer highly structured tasks. They make good clerks, secretaries, and bank tellers.
These individuals are risk-takers and take-charge types. They are good leaders and may be particularly effective as managers or politicians.
use art to express themselves, and they often prefer the world of art to interactions with people. They are best suited to occupations involving art.
Communal Professions
occupations associated with relationships; often have lower status and lower salaries
Agentic Professions
occupations associated with getting things accomplished
Key features of cognitive milestones in middle childhood are:
• Logical thinking • Selective, flexible, planful attention • Awareness of mental processes and impact on task performance (metacognition) -Perspective taking
Key features of cognitive milestones in adolescence are:
• Hypothetical thinking • Problem-solving that coordinates their theory of an idea with evidence in front of them -All critical information processing skills continue to develop to lead to more effective and efficient processing of new information
Concrete operational thinking abilties and limitations
abilities: ○ Operational thinking allows children to combine, separate, order, and transform objects and images mentally ○ Decentration of thought ○ Thinking becomes logical, flexible and organized Limitations: ○ Operations work best with concrete information -Continuum of acquisitions- horizontal and vertical decalage
mental actions that combine, separate and transform schemes
Self-Esteem in adolescents
• They begin to be able to take their own perceptions of themselves as well as others' into account when describing their own characteristics • There is also a multifaceted view of self • Adolescents become more accurate in understanding who they are and their self-concept, but that does not mean that their self-esteem improves or that they like themselves - Adolescents are also able differentiate whether they like certain aspects of themselves, and if they dislike other parts • Girls self-esteem tends to be lower and more vulnerable than boys • Adolescents with higher SES tend to have higher self-esteem -There were studies that showed lower self-esteem in minorities, but as prejudices have changed, that is not as true anymore
Identity-Versus-Identity-Confusion Stage
the period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves -Those who do not succeed in this stage sometimes adopt socially unacceptable roles, or may have difficulty forming and maintaining long-lasting close personal -relationships -Adolescents that are successful in this stage are able to find their identity and learn their unique strengths and an accurate sense of self
Psychological Moratorium
a period during which adolescents take time off from the upcoming responsibilities of adulthood and explore various roles and responsibilities
a period of identity development in which an adolescent consciously chooses between various alternatives and makes decisions
a psychological investment in a course of action or an ideology
Marcia proposed that there are four categories of adolescent identity, that go between stages of crisis and commitment. These stages are:
identity achievement, identity foreclosure, moratorium, and identity diffusion
Identity Achievement
the status of adolescents who commit to a particular identity following a period of crisis during which they consider various alternatives; teens who have reached this identity status tend to be the most psychologically healthy/are higher in achievement motivation and moral reasoning
Identity Foreclosure
the status of adolescents who prematurely commit to an identity without adequately exploring alternatives; tend to have what can be called “rigid strength”: happy and self-satisfied; they also have a high need for social approval and tend to be authoritarian
the status of adolescents who may have explored various identity alternatives to some degree, but have not yet committed themselves; they show relatively high anxiety and experience psychological conflict. On the other hand, they are often lively and appealing, seeking intimacy with other
Identity diffusion
the status of adolescents who consider various identity alternatives, but never commit to one or never even consider identity options in any conscious way; the lack of commitment in these adolescents impairs their ability to form close relationships and they are often socially withdrawn
Spirituality in adolescence
• Many adolescents start to think critically of their religion, and start to ask more questions. Others become more attached to their religion since it provides answers for complex, abstract questions • Fowler suggests that our understanding and practice of faith goes through a series of stages
Fowler's stages of spiritual development
○ In childhood, individuals hold a fairly literal view of God and biblical figures ○ In adolescence, spirituality becomes more abstract, and they develop a core set of beliefs and values ○ After adolescence, people move into the individuative-reflective stage in which they reflect on their beliefs and values -The final stage of faith development is conjunctive stage, where individuals develop a broad, inclusive view of religion and all humanity
Cultural Assimilation Model
the view that individual cultural identities should be assimilated into a unified culture in the US
Pluralistic Society Model
suggests that US society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their individual cultural features
Bicultural Identity
minority group members draw from their own cultural identity while integrating themselves into the dominant culture; this is seen as a "middle ground" between the cultural assimilation and pluralistic society models
Adolescent Depression
• More than 1/4 of adolescents report feeling so sad or hopeless for 2 or more weeks in a row that they stop doing their normal activities • 3% of adolescents experience major depressive disorder • Adolescent girls experience major depression more often than do boys -African Americans and Native Americans have higher rates of depression
Adolescent Suicide
• The rate of adolescent suicide has tripled over the last 30 years • Suicide is the third most common cause of death between 15-25 year olds -The rate of suicide is higher for boys than girls, but girls attempt suicide more frequently
having independence and a sense of control over one's life
Generation Gap
a divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and world views; this "gap" is often overexaggerated, and most parents and children have similar views
Social comparison
the comparison of opinions, abilities, and even physical changes with peers
Reference groups
groups of people with whom one compares oneself
group of from 2-12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another
groups larger than cliques, composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another
Sex cleavage
sex segregation in which boys interact primarily with boys and girls primarily with girls -This changes in adolescence as boys and girls start to show interest in each other in terms of both personality and sexuality
Popular Adolescents
children who are generally well-liked
Controversial Adolescents
children who are liked by some peer and disliked by others
Rejected Adolescents
children who are uniformly disliked
Neglected Adolescents
children who receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interactions
Peer Pressure
the influence of one's peers to conform to their behavior and attitudes -Adolescents do conform to peers and seek their opinions on many social matters, but also go to parents and adults for different types of advice, such as career choices
Undersocialized Delinquents
adolescent delinquents who are raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision
Socialized Delinquents
adolescent delinquents who know and subscribe to the norms of society and who are fairly normal psychologically
Characteristics of undersocialized delinquents
• Tend to be relatively aggressive and violent fairly early in life, which tends to lead to rejection by peers and academic failure • Also tend to be more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD as children, and tend to be less intelligent on average • They suffer a lot of psychological difficulties, and as adults often fit the pattern of antisocial personality disorder -These types of adolescents are unlikely to be rehabilitated and often spend most of their lives with this behavior
Characteristics of socialized delinquents
• Crimes committed do not lead to a life of crime in adulthood • Usually are highly influenced by their peers, and delinquency is commonly done in groups -Some research suggests parents supervise their children's behavior less closely than others
sexual self-stimulation -By the age of 15 80 percent of teenage boys and 20 percent of teenage girls report that they have masturbated -For males, masturbation occurs more frequently in early adolescence then decreases, while females have the opposite pattern
Permissiveness with Affection
premarital intercourse is viewed as permissible for both men and women if it occurs in the context of a long-term, committed, or loving relationship
Teenage Pregancies
-Every year more than 800,000 adolescents in the United States give birth -African-American and Hispanic adolescents are more likely to have a teenage pregnancy than white adolescents -"The results of an unintended pregnancy can be devastat- ing to both mother and child. In comparison to earlier times, teenage mothers today are much less likely to be married. In a high percentage of cases, mothers care for their children without the help of the father. Without financial or emotional support, a mother may have to abandon her own education, and consequently she may be relegated to unskilled, poorly paying jobs for the rest of her life. In other cases, she may develop long-term dependency on welfare. An adolescent mother’s physical and mental health may suffer as she faces unrelenting stress due to continual demands on her time"
Moral reasoning
the ways that we make decisions on moral and ethical issues, and how we use those values in our behaviors and lifestyle
The three perspective of moral reasoning development are:
biological perspective, social perspective, and social understanding perspective
Biological perspective of moral reasoning
-our moral reasoning development is driven by the idea that we are social species and have areas in our brain that are specialized for social interactions and connections -This means we have to learn how to have empathy and moral behaviors, which drives our brain functions to develop moral reasoning
Social perspective to moral reasoning
the concept that morality is learned by social interactions within our environment and social norms, which drives our own morality; consists of the subcategories of psychoanalytic and social learning perspectives
Psychoanalytic perspective on moral reasoning
-we are born with our "id" (our need for immediate gratification), but that our ego starts to develop around age 2, and the reality principle makes us start to understand the social norms around us. Around age 3-5, our superego develops, which is our internalized values and we begin to feel the need to adhere to those values, which drives our "moral compass"; Our moral development is driven by the emergence of our superego
Social learning perspective of moral reasoning
We learn moral reasoning through our exposure to the world around us and our social interactions. We learn this through imitation and modeling, ie observing others. These observations drive our social norms and our moral reasoning. The characteristics of people around us drive our own moral reasoning
Social understanding perspective of moral reasoning
we are not taught moral reasoning, but rather we naturally inherit moral reasoning and development through time, experience and interactions with others (specifically through play interactions with other children)
Piaget's theory of moral reasoning
moral reasoning starts to emerge only after children are able to form concrete operations
Heteronomous Morality (Piaget's theory of moral development)
from ages 5-10; our morality is driven by rules that are determined by outsiders -Rules are unchangeable, and if they are there is less value -Children determine right or wrong based on outcome, not intention
Autonomous Morality (Piaget's theory of moral development)
from ages 10+, rules are socially agreed upon expectations that can be changed -There is a standard of ideal reciprocity, meaning rules should be equal and fair for everyone -Children can judge on both outcome and intentions
Punishment and obedience
focused on a fear and avoidance of punishment based on the authority figure's power (part of preconventional thinking)
Instrumental Purpose
children start to expand their view of right and wrong; start to understand that there may be more than one right answer -Develops fair exchange which means that they understand that there is an outcome from choices (part of preconventional thinking)
Interpersonal Cooperation
begins to think about how their choices will impact the others around them and relationships with others (part of conventional thinking)
Maintaining Social Order
when the focus shifts from individual relationships to a larger social and family concept; has a larger focus on society as a whole (part of conventional thinking)
Social Contract
laws are social constructs that make the world run smoothly, but individual rights are also important and sometimes conflicting (part of post-conventional thinking)
Universal Ethical Principles
questioning of what justice is; using a more philosophical framework to understand moral reasoning (part of post-conventional thinking)
Gilligan proposed that there may be a more _________ __________ way to view moral reasoning, especially in the context of relationships with others
gender comprehensive
Erik Erikson
expanded Freudian theory, and focused on the development of the conscious part of the self- the ego -Viewed ego development as a socio-environmental element that expands throughout the lifespan -Ego development being during infancy and continues through old age, peaking during adolescence
Few, if any, people reach ____________ morality