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Sun and stars are formed from what?
Nebulas or interstellar clouds
Interstellar clouds mostly of _______, especially ______ and ________.
gas, hydrogen, helium
A solar nebula is a disk of dust and gas that formed the sun and planet.
The dense concentration ________ of this rotating disk eventually became the sun.
at the center
As disks of dust began to cool, different elements and compounds were able to _______ depending on their distance from the Sun.
The Birth of Star: Step 1: Disk formation Step 2: Pre-SolarNebula Gas Cloud
False - first step is pre-solar nebula gas cloud
Why has the Sun been stable for 4.6 billion years always send the same amount of energy to the Earth?
Because it is in a sequence of stars
The Sun has sent out different amounts of energy to the Earth
Diameter of Sun
The Earth is nearly 109 times larger than the Sun
False - smaller
The mass of Sun is 333,000 times Earth's mass
What is the mass of the Sun?
1.1989 x 10^30 km
What type of star is the Sun?
A normal G2 star
Where is the energy created in the Sun?
In the core, and radiates outward.
What process needs a high temperature of about 15 million K inside the Sun?
Fusion of Hydrogen
The Sun used what type of energy to become a star?
A ________ star is stable
As the temperature of the sun rises, the pressure ______. Then the star expands and _________.
If there is not enough energy is generation, a star can create more energy by
contracting which heats up the star and generates energy
What are the names of the inner plants?
Earth, Venus, Mercury, Mars
Inner planets are also called
What are the characteristics of an inner planet?
Rocky, dense, and mental cores (iron)
The asteroid belt is between what two plants?
Mars and Jupiter
"Minor planets" or "planetoids" are more than 1000km across
False - less than
What are the names of the other planets?
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Outer planets are typically larger than the inner planets and are made out of gases and liquids
Outer planets have slow winds and small storms
Outer planets rotate relatively quickly
What is the Kupier Belt?
A disk of debris at the edge of our solar system
A sphere of widely spaced comets and dust is called a
The Oort Cloud is 50 trillion km from the Sun
False - 30 trillion
Mercury is the smallest planet?
Mercury is farthest from the Sun
Mercury is the slowest rotating planet
Mercury revolves the fastest because it is farthest from the Sun
False- it revolves the fastest because it is the closets to the Sun
Mercury has no atmosphere which is why it can have such a large temperature change
Venus is significantly smaller than Earth
False - it is nearly the same size, a bit smaller
Venus rotates very slow
How many days does it take for Venus to rotate?
Venus has a very think atmosphere of CO2 which allows for the surface temperature to be between 377-487 degrees C
Venus' surface pressure is 95 times lower than Earth
The toxic gases in Venus' atmosphere are
sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride
Earth's diameter is 7900 miles or 12756km
Earth's axis tilt is 15 degrees
False - 23
There is no presence of CO2 in Earth's atmosphere
False - 0.03%
Mars is about half the size of Earth
Mars rotates 24 hours and orbits 687 days
Average temperature of Mars is -45 C
False - 60C
Mars has a thin atmosphere
What were names of the 5 Rovers sent by NASA?
Sojourner, Spirit, Opportunity, Curiosity, and Perseverance
Jupiter and Saturn are considered to be ____ giants
Uranus and Neptune are considered to be the _____ giants
What planet has the diameter of 143,000 km (11x larger than Earth)?
What planet has 90% of its atmosphere made of H2 and 10% He?
What planet has a rocky core - liquid metallic hydrogen - electrical conductor, generates magnetic field
Jupiter's rotation takes 10 hours and 12 years to orbit
Jupiter has how many moons?
What are the names of Jupiter's inner moons?
Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, and Thebe
What are the names of Jupiter's Galiean moons?
Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa
Volcanic satellite of Jupiter Slightly larger than Moon
One of Jupiter's moons that: Slightly smaller than Moon Its ice shell: 15 to 25 km thick Ocean death: 60 to 150 km
One of Jupiter's moons that: Largest moon in Solar System, bigger than Mercury Ice crust: 150km thick Ocean is beneath ice crust: 100km
One oOne of Jupiter's moons that: Large like Ganymede Icy surface covered by craters of various shapes Subsurface ocean: 250 km below the surface
What planet is 9x the size of Earth?
What planet is made of 75% hydrogen and 25% helium?
What planet is made of water, methane, ammonia, and "rock"?
Saturn's average temperature is -178 C
Saturn has 100 satellites
False - 80
What planet takes 11 hours to rotate and 29 years to orbit
Titan is Saturn's biggest satellite
Titan is smaller than Mercury
Average surface temperature of Titan is -179 C
Titan's atmosphere is > 90% N, CH4, and Ar
Titan has ice shells on its surface
There is liquid water in the ocean beneath Titan's surface
What planets are 4x the size of Earth?
Uranus and Neptune
What planet has the temperature of -195 C at the surface
What planet's atmosphere is made of H2, He, and methane and has 11 rings?
What planet has 27 satellites?
What planet has a rotation time of 18 hours and takes 84 years to orbit?
What planet has an axis inclined to almost 90 degrees?
What planet has the avg temperature of -215 C
What is Neptune made of?
Icy water, methane, and ammonia
What planet's atmosphere is made of H, He, methane and has 4 rings?
How many moons does Neptune have?
What is Neptune's rotation time and year orbit
18 hours and 165 year orbit
What is Pluto's size in comparison to the Earth's moon?
2/3 the size
What is Pluto's rotation time and orbit time?
6.3 days and 248 years
What is Pluto's average temperature?
What is Pluto made of?
Water and methane ice, and frozen nitrogen
What is a dust tail and how long is it?
white, "smoke", reflects sun. 600,000 to 6 million miles long
What is a gas tail and how long is it?
solar UV breaks down CO gas, making them glow blue. 10's of millions miles long
Earth is argued to be...
Heaven in comparison to other planets and galaxies
What is argued to be Hell?
Anything outside of Earth because it is too hot.
Earth is the only known planet to harbor living creatures in the Solar System
The hottest planet in our solar system is Mercury
Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system
Mars has no oxygen in the air
False - it has a very small percentage of oxygen in the air (0.161% O2)
Mars has ice in its poles
Jupiters cloud-tops average how many degrees C?